The combination of biological molecules and CNTs is of great importance in developing miniaturized sensor devices for future clinical diagnostic and electronics applications. Biosensing technology using aligned CNTs solely depends upon amplified signals generated by biomolecular interactions. Aligned CNTs have huge potential as electrochemical sensors as they provide enhanced electron transfer in redox reactions due to high length to diameter (aspect ratio). CNT based functional devices including transistors, sensor, emitters and energy units require vertically aligned CNTs with a high length to diameter aspect ratio and their ability to mediate electron transfer reactions of electroactive species in solution when used as electrode material. Carbon nanotubes have been proved as better electrode materials than traditional carbon electrodes, clay nanoparticles and conducting polymers etc. due to their proficient charge transfer capability and high chemical stability. Major Aim of this book is to present clear idea to the readers who intend to devise a highly sensitive and efficient vertically aligned CNT based electrochemical sensors.
This is a book for graduate students and researchers who wish to learn about carbon nanotubes and engage in the research and development of carbon anotubes and their applications in various fields.The carbon nanotubes were considered to be one of the most potential nanomaterials in this century. The field has recieved a considerable attention and is achieving continuos progresses in both research and industrial applications.The book includes a brief introduction on carbon nanotubes. But it mainly focuses on aligned carbon nanotubes. The synthesis and microwave absorption properties of aligned carbon nanotubes were investigated in the book. The all datas on aligned carbon nanotubes were obtained from a long time investigation in my group in past a dozen years. I hope the book can become a useful handbook for students and researchers who is engaging in studies and development of carbon nanotubes or will be in the field in the near future.
Carbon Nanotubes (CNT’s) are nanoscale diameter, cylindrical structures composed of carbon atoms in a hexagonal arrangement. The unique properties of CNT’s, such as very high strength and excellent thermal and electrical conductivity, have caused this material to become the focus of intense research by many groups.This textbook is designed for graduate students and researchers from various fields of sciences, Technologies and Engineering who wish to learn about carbon nanotubes. This book contains Introduction to Nanotechnology, Basics of CNT’s, Vertically grown CNT’s, Advanced topics in the Synthesis of CNT's, Deposition Techniques, Characterization Techniques, Properties and Applications etc.
Meta-Nanotubes are a new generation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which result from the chemical transformation of regular CNTs and their subsequent combination with foreign materials (atoms, molecules, chemical groups, nanocrystals) by various ways such as functionalisation, doping, filling, and substitution. These new nanomaterials exhibit enhanced or new properties, such as reactivity, solubility, and magnetism, which pristine CNTs do not possess. Their many applications include electronic and optoelectronic devices, chemical and biosensors, solar cells, drug delivery, and reinforced glasses and ceramics. Carbon Meta-Nanotubes: Synthesis, Properties and Applications discusses these third generation carbon nanotubes and the unique characteristics they possess. Beginning with a general overview of the subject, this book covers the five main categories of meta-nanotubes, namely: Doped Carbon Nanotubes Functionalised Carbon Nanotubes Decorated or Coated Carbon Nanotubes Filled Carbon Nanotubes Heterogeneous Nanotubes Providing unparalleled coverage of these third generation or meta-nanotubes, and possibilities for future development, this book is essential for anyone working on carbon nanotubes.
A thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor was built and used to grow vertically and horizontally aligned carbon nanotube arrays. The as-grown nanotubes were investigated on a single tube level using near-infrared photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and PL excitation spectroscopy as well as Raman, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. The PL of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) in different surroundings and at temperatures down to 4 K was analyzed. Ultralong CVD-grown nanotubes were imaged on Si/SiO2 to determine their chirality and to check structural integrity along the nanotube length. Furthermore, ultralong SWNTs were manipulated (moved, bent and fractured) employing an AFM. Finally, a new approach to determine relative abundances and PL quantum yields of semiconducting SWNTs in dispersions is presented, which is based on statistical counting of individual nanotubes by means of PL spectroscopy.
"Carbon Nanotubes" provides an extensive description of carbon nanotubes in terms of their structures, properties, synthesis, characterization and applications. This book includes a comprehensive review of synthesis methods of single and multi-wall carbon tubes and their technological applications in microscopes, sensors and microelectronics. It is presenting basic knowledge appealing to graduate and postgraduate researchers and scientists.
The rapid progress in the field of organic conducting materials has found possible applications for sensors and molecular electronics. Among them both conducting polymers and carbon nanotubes, specifically Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes, are good candidates for these applications. Their associations can lead to the synthesis of materials called nanocomposites which resemble the whole physical and chemical properties of the starting ones. This book is therefore focused on the fabrication of nanocomposites materials, based on polyaniline derivatives and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, by means of standardized oxidative polymerization, and the subsequent characterizations by different techniques to asses the physical and chemical properties of the synthesised materials.
Carbon based nano materials such as single, double and multi-walled carbon nanotubes serve as fundamental building blocks for NEMS. Though carbon based nano structures are relatively new breed of materials, but they are extremely important for mechanical and materials industries and for the fabrication of semi-conductor hybrid devices as well as future nano computers. There is a challenging lack in understanding the complex mechanism that involves and controls the mechanical properties of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VAMWCNTs). For several applications in the regime of micro and nano electro-mechanical systems, it is crucial to understand the combined behavior of CNT turfs rather than analyzing only the properties of a single carbon nanotube as multi-walled convoluted and intricate turf structures yield properties different to those shown by single walled carbon nanotubes. This book is an effort to quantify and characterize the 'ruling' parameters that play the most important role in controlling the mechanical response of MWCNTs. Extremely useful stereology-assisted experimental techniques are presented to study SEM micrographs of MWCNT turf structures.
This book contents of five chapters, chapter one includes an introduction to the carbon nanotubes, dyes and objective of work. Chapter two includes the discovery and history, structure and size and synthesis methods, applications, purification techniques, functionalization of carbon nanotubes and technologies for color removal and adsorption. Chapter three includes the carbon nanotubes synthesis by catalytic chemical vapor deposition method and a several methods of treatment to increase the efficiency of carbon nanotubes. Chapter four includes two parts the first one is the carbon nanotubes characterizations by several methods such as XRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR, AFM and BET and the second part is the removal of dyes and the effects of several variables on the efficiency of removal and the adsorption isotherms.
Carbon Nanotubes play a special role in the realm of carbon nanostructures. Many applications of carbon nanotubes have started coming to Adsorption of Carbon Nanotubes in recent years and this is a research direction of great promise. Therefore, a book with an Adsorption and Desorption in Carbon Nanotubes focus is especially timely. That the authors of the book have many years of experience in Adsorption in Carbon Nanotubes research and in commercial exploitation of carbon nanotubes makes this volume of even greater importance and value, as they share this expertise and experience with students, researchers, and others.
Written by the most prominent experts and pioneers in the field, this ready reference combines fundamental research, recent breakthroughs and real-life applications in one well-organized treatise. As such, both newcomers and established researchers will find here a wide range of current methods for producing and characterizing carbon nanotubes using imaging as well as spectroscopic techniques. One major part of this thorough overview is devoted to the controlled chemical functionalization of carbon nanotubes, covering intriguing applications in photovoltaics, organic electronics and materials design. The latest research on novel carbon-derived structures, such as graphene, nanoonions and carbon pea pods, round off the book.
Demand for biosensor research applications is growing steadily. According to a new report by Frost & Sullivan, the biosensor market is expected to reach $14.42 billion by 2016. Clinical diagnostic applications continue to be the largest market for biosensors, and this demand is likely to continue through 2016 and beyond. Biosensor technology for use in clinical diagnostics, however, requires translational research that moves bench science and theoretical knowledge toward marketable products. Despite the high volume of academic research to date, only a handful of biomedical devices have become viable commercial applications. Academic research must increase its focus on practical uses for biosensors. This book is an example of this increased focus, and discusses work to advance microfluidic-based protein biosensor technologies for practical use in clinical diagnostics.
Carbon nanotubes,one dimensional fibrous structure,have emerged as one of the most important material in the field of nanotechnology. These nanostructures, have found applications in almost every field of science and technology. However, the major technological development in this field is impeded by lack of efficient and controllable manipulation (alignment and positioning) methods. This book explains two major efficient techniques, i.e. electric field and magnetic field assisted alignment of carbon nanotubes on solid substrates and between gold microelectrodes.
Since their discovery in 1991, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been regarded as a promising new material because of their unique electrical, mechanical and chemical properties. However, the poor solubility of CNTs in water or organic solvents limits their use in many potential applications. The goal of this research is to get a well-dispearsed uniformly carbon nanotubes suspension using high voltage electrical discharge techniques in order to use it in various potential applications. Firstly, this study provides a clarification about proposed methods for enhancement of microplasma generated in water. It is revealed that adding carbon nanotubes into water and/or controlling water conductivity have a direct effect and could improve microplasma intensity underwater. Secondly, the effect of solution pH on water-solubility of carbon nanotubes treated by microplasma was investigated and confirmed experimentally using different advanced measurements to determine the optimum condition which lead to well dispersing of carbon nanotubes in water. Finally, this work demonstrates another effective technique used to improve CNTs solubilization efficiency, using dielectric barrier discharge in air.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have received much attention from both the scientific and industrial communities due to their structural properties and unique morphology. There has also been growing interest in vertically aligned single walled carbon nanotubes (VA-SWNTs) because of their suitability for building devices such as hydrogen storage and super capacitors. Various methods including chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have been developed for growing VA-SWNTs. Among them is alcohol catalytic CVD which is well known for its economic viability, comprehensive substrates selectivity and good yield of VA-SWNTs. In order to fully understand the growth mechanism of those CNTs, an examination of the role of inputs like hydrocarbon flow rate, reaction time, chamber temperature, and pressure is essential. This work studies the controllability of VA-SWNTs growth by a hybrid process model of an experimental design and an artificial neural network (ANN).