Currently, recycling of e-waste can be broadly divided into three major steps: (a) disassembly: selectively disassembly, targeting on singling out hazardous or valuable components for special treatment, is an indispensable process in recycling of e-waste; (b) upgrading: using mechanical processing and/or metallurgical processing to up-grade desirable materials content, i.e. preparing materials for refining process, such as grinding the plastics into powders; (c) refining: in the last step, recovered materials are retreated or purified by using metallurgical processing so as to be acceptable for their original using. Four topical areas are planned including one special session on the recycling of batteries. Papers in the following topics will be welcomed: Mechanical recycling of E-Wastes Recycling of plastics from E-Wastes Recovery of metals from E-wastes Hydrometallurgical recycling (leaching) of E-Wastes Combustion or pyrolysis of E-Wastes Life cycle and economic analysis for the recycling of E-Wastes
This book seeks to address the challenges facing the international seafood industry via a two pronged approach: by offering the latest information on established technologies and introducing new ideas and technologies. An introductory chapter sets the tone for the book by presenting the background against which fish processing will exist in the near future. Chapter two looks at the environmental and sustainability issues relating to conventional fish processing, including processing efficiency and better use of the outputs currently considered wastes. The impact of mechanisation and computerisation on environmental sustainability is also addressed. Subsequent chapters examine the latest developments in established fish processing technologies such as canning, curing, freezing and chilling, with an emphasis on the environmental aspects of packaging and the process itself. In addition, quality and processing parameters for specific species, including new species, are described. The second part of the book gives authors the opportunity to introduce the potential technologies and applications of the future to a wider audience. These include fermented products and their acceptance by a wider audience; the utilisation of fish processing by-products as aquaculture feeds; and the use of by-products for bioactive compounds in biomedical, nutraceutical, cosmetic and other applications.
Solid Wastes Management begins with a focus on processing municipal and similar commercial, as well as industrial wastes; assessing and minimising the environmental impacts of processing and disposal. The second section reviews the treatment technologies available (physical, biological and thermal), their advantages, disadvantages and environmental performance. The third section considers the environmental and health impacts of the technologies and reviews the use of models to predict landfill leachate, gas formation and pollution dispersion. The fourth section is on the human health impact of waste management and draws on the previous sections, bringing in pollutants such as bioaerosols and ultra-fine particulate material. In the fifth and sixth sections, the importance of adopting an integrated approach to waste management is demonstrated through consideration of life cycle assessment and its use to determine optimum waste management solutions. Discover our e-book series on Environmental Monitoring and Protection, published in partnership with The Open University! Find out more about the series editors, the titles in the series and their focus on water, noise, air and waste, and The Open University courses in Environmental Management. Visit www.wiley.com/go/ouebookseries
Digital signal processing plays a central role in the development of modern communication and information processing systems. The theory and application of signal processing is concerned with the identification, modelling and utilisation of patterns and structures in a signal process. The observation signals are often distorted, incomplete and noisy and therefore noise reduction, the removal of channel distortion, and replacement of lost samples are important parts of a signal processing system. The fourth edition of Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction updates and extends the chapters in the previous edition and includes two new chapters on MIMO systems, Correlation and Eigen analysis and independent component analysis. The wide range of topics covered in this book include Wiener filters, echo cancellation, channel equalisation, spectral estimation, detection and removal of impulsive and transient noise, interpolation of missing data segments, speech enhancement and noise/interference in mobile communication environments. This book provides a coherent and structured presentation of the theory and applications of statistical signal processing and noise reduction methods. Two new chapters on MIMO systems, correlation and Eigen analysis and independent component analysis Comprehensive coverage of advanced digital signal processing and noise reduction methods for communication and information processing systems Examples and applications in signal and information extraction from noisy data Comprehensive but accessible coverage of signal processing theory including probability models, Bayesian inference, hidden Markov models, adaptive filters and Linear prediction models Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction is an invaluable text for postgraduates, senior undergraduates and researchers in the fields of digital signal processing, telecommunications and statistical data analysis. It will also be of interest to professional engineers in telecommunications and audio and signal processing industries and network planners and implementers in mobile and wireless communication communities.
A technical and economic review of emerging waste disposal technologies Intended for a wide audience ranging from engineers and academics to decision-makers in both the public and private sectors, Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Conversion Processes: Economic, Technical, and Renewable Comparisons reviews the current state of the solid waste disposal industry. It details how the proven plasma gasification technology can be used to manage Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and to generate energy and revenues for local communities in an environmentally safe manner with essentially no wastes. Beginning with an introduction to pyrolysis/gasification and combustion technologies, the book provides many case studies on various waste-to-energy (WTE) technologies and creates an economic and technical baseline from which all current and emerging WTE technologies could be compared and evaluated. Topics include: Pyrolysis/gasification technology, the most suitable and economically viable approach for the management of wastes Combustion technology Other renewable energy resources including wind and hydroelectric energy Plasma economics Cash flows as a revenue source for waste solids-to-energy management Plant operations, with an independent case study of Eco-Valley plant in Utashinai, Japan Extensive case studies of garbage to liquid fuels, wastes to electricity, and wastes to power ethanol plants illustrate how currently generated MSW and past wastes in landfills can be processed with proven plasma gasification technology to eliminate air and water pollution from landfills.
Reflecting the rapid progress in the field, the book presents the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation thereby focusing on RNA processing mechanisms in eucaryotic cells. With chapters on mechanisms as RNA splicing, RNA interference, MicroRNAs, RNA editing and others, the book also discusses the critical role of RNA processing for the pathogenesis of a wide range of human diseases. The interdisciplinary importance of the topic makes the title a useful resource for a wide reader group in science, clinics as well as pharmaceutical industry.
The food industry has utilized automated control systems for over a quarter of a century. However, the past decade has seen an increase in the use of more sophisticated software-driven, on-line control systems, especially in thermal processing unit operations. As these software-driven control systems have become more complex, the need to validate their operation has become more important. In addition to validating new control systems, some food companies have undertaken the more difficult task of validating legacy control systems that have been operating for a number of years on retorts or aseptic systems. Thermal Processing: Control and Automation presents an overview of various facets of thermal processing and packaging from industry, academic, and government representatives. The book contains information that will be valuable not only to a person interested in understanding the fundamental aspects of thermal processing (eg graduate students), but also to those involved in designing the processes (eg process specialists based in food manufacturing) and those who are involved in process filing with USDA or FDA. The book focuses on technical aspects, both from a thermal processing standpoint and from an automation and process control standpoint. Coverage includes established technologies such as retorting as well as emerging technologies such as continuous flow microwave processing. The book addresses both the theoretical and applied aspects of thermal processing, concluding with speculations on future trends and directions.
A cookbook of algorithms for common image processing applications Thanks to advances in computer hardware and software, algorithms have been developed that support sophisticated image processing without requiring an extensive background in mathematics. This bestselling book has been fully updated with the newest of these, including 2D vision methods in content-based searches and the use of graphics cards as image processing computational aids. It’s an ideal reference for software engineers and developers, advanced programmers, graphics programmers, scientists, and other specialists who require highly specialized image processing. Algorithms now exist for a wide variety of sophisticated image processing applications required by software engineers and developers, advanced programmers, graphics programmers, scientists, and related specialists This bestselling book has been completely updated to include the latest algorithms, including 2D vision methods in content-based searches, details on modern classifier methods, and graphics cards used as image processing computational aids Saves hours of mathematical calculating by using distributed processing and GPU programming, and gives non-mathematicians the shortcuts needed to program relatively sophisticated applications. Algorithms for Image Processing and Computer Vision, 2nd Edition provides the tools to speed development of image processing applications.
Leading experts present the latest research results in adaptive signal processing Recent developments in signal processing have made it clear that significant performance gains can be achieved beyond those achievable using standard adaptive filtering approaches. Adaptive Signal Processing presents the next generation of algorithms that will produce these desired results, with an emphasis on important applications and theoretical advancements. This highly unique resource brings together leading authorities in the field writing on the key topics of significance, each at the cutting edge of its own area of specialty. It begins by addressing the problem of optimization in the complex domain, fully developing a framework that enables taking full advantage of the power of complex-valued processing. Then, the challenges of multichannel processing of complex-valued signals are explored. This comprehensive volume goes on to cover Turbo processing, tracking in the subspace domain, nonlinear sequential state estimation, and speech-bandwidth extension. Examines the seven most important topics in adaptive filtering that will define the next-generation adaptive filtering solutions Introduces the powerful adaptive signal processing methods developed within the last ten years to account for the characteristics of real-life data: non-Gaussianity, non-circularity, non-stationarity, and non-linearity Features self-contained chapters, numerous examples to clarify concepts, and end-of-chapter problems to reinforce understanding of the material Contains contributions from acknowledged leaders in the field Adaptive Signal Processing is an invaluable tool for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners working in the areas of signal processing, communications, controls, radar, sonar, and biomedical engineering.
This study addresses the question how income affects health care utilization by the population aged 50 and over in the United States and a number of European countries with varying health care systems. The probabilities that individuals receive several medical services (visits to general practitioner, specialist, dentist, inpatient, or outpatient services) are analyzed separately using probit models. In addition to controls for income and demographic characteristics, controls for health status (both subjective and objective measures of health) are used. We analyze how the relationship between income and health care utilization varies across countries and relate these cross country differences to characteristics of the health care system, i. e., per capita total and public expenditure on health care, gate-keeping for specialist care, and copayments.
Thermochemical pathways for biomass conversion offer opportunities for rapid and efficient processing of diverse feedstocks into fuels, chemicals and power. Thermochemical processing has several advantages relative to biochemical processing, including greater feedstock flexibility, conversion of both carbohydrate and lignin into products, faster reaction rates, and the ability to produce a diverse selection of fuels. Thermochemical Processing of Biomass examines the large number of possible pathways for converting biomass into fuels, chemicals and power through the use of heat and catalysts. The book presents a practical overview of the latest research in this rapidly developing field, highlighting the fundamental chemistry, technical applications and operating costs associated with thermochemical conversion strategies. Bridging the gap between research and practical application, this book is written for engineering professionals in the biofuels industry, as well as academic researchers working in bioenergy, bioprocessing technology and chemical engineering. Topics covered include: Combustion Gasification Fast Pyrolysis Hydrothermal Processing Upgrading Syngas and Bio-oil Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Fuels Hybrid Thermochemical/Biochemical Processing Economics of Thermochemical Conversion For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources, visit www.wiley.com/go/rrs
The second edition of the Food Processing Handbook presents a comprehensive review of technologies, procedures and innovations in food processing, stressing topics vital to the food industry today and pinpointing the trends in future research and development. Focusing on the technology involved, this handbook describes the principles and the equipment used as well as the changes – physical, chemical, microbiological and organoleptic – that occur during food preservation. In so doing, the text covers in detail such techniques as post-harvest handling, thermal processing, evaporation and dehydration, freezing, irradiation, high-pressure processing, emerging technologies and packaging. Separation and conversion operations widely used in the food industry are also covered as are the processes of baking, extrusion and frying. In addition, it addresses current concerns about the safety of processed foods (including HACCP systems, traceability and hygienic design of plant) and control of food processes, as well as the impact of processing on the environment, water and waste treatment, lean manufacturing and the roles of nanotechnology and fermentation in food processing. This two-volume set is a must-have for scientists and engineers involved in food manufacture, research and development in both industry and academia, as well as students of food-related topics at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. From Reviews on the First Edition: «This work should become a standard text for students of food technology, and is worthy of a place on the bookshelf of anybody involved in the production of foods.» Journal of Dairy Technology, August 2008 «This work will serve well as an excellent course resource or reference as it has well-written explanations for those new to the field and detailed equations for those needing greater depth.» CHOICE, September 2006
Presenting boundary conditions for the economic and environmental utilization of geothermal technology, this is the first book to provide basic knowledge on the topic in such detail. The editor is the coordinator of the European Geothermic Research Initiative, while the authors are experts for the various geological situations in Europe with high temperature reservoirs in shallow and deep horizons. With its perspectives for R&D in geothermic technology concluding each chapter, this ready reference will be of great value to scientists and decision-makers in research and politics, as well as those giving courses in petroleum engineering, for example.
The rapid development in various fields of Digital Audio Effects, or DAFX, has led to new algorithms and this second edition of the popular book, DAFX: Digital Audio Effects has been updated throughout to reflect progress in the field. It maintains a unique approach to DAFX with a lecture-style introduction into the basics of effect processing. Each effect description begins with the presentation of the physical and acoustical phenomena, an explanation of the signal processing techniques to achieve the effect, followed by a discussion of musical applications and the control of effect parameters. Topics covered include: filters and delays, modulators and demodulators, nonlinear processing, spatial effects, time-segment processing, time-frequency processing, source-filter processing, spectral processing, time and frequency warping musical signals. Updates to the second edition include: Three completely new chapters devoted to the major research areas of: Virtual Analog Effects, Automatic Mixing and Sound Source Separation, authored by leading researchers in the field . Improved presentation of the basic concepts and explanation of the related technology. Extended coverage of the MATLABTM scripts which demonstrate the implementation of the basic concepts into software programs. Companion website (www.dafx.de) which serves as the download source for MATLABTM scripts, will be updated to reflect the new material in the book. Discussing DAFX from both an introductory and advanced level, the book systematically introduces the reader to digital signal processing concepts, how they can be applied to sound and their use in musical effects. This makes the book suitable for a range of professionals including those working in audio engineering, as well as researchers and engineers involved in the area of digital signal processing along with students on multimedia related courses.
The paper exploits panel data finite mixture (latent class) models to measure consumer equity in healthcare access and utilization. The finite mixture approach accounts for unobservable consumer heterogeneity, while generalized linear models address a retransformation problem of logged dependent variable. Using the data of the Japan Household Panel Survey (2009–2014), we discover that consumers separate into latent classes in the binary choice models for healthcare use and generalized linear models for outpatient/inpatient healthcare expenditure. The results reveal that healthcare access in Japan is pro-poor for the most sick consumers, while utilization of outpatient care is equitable with respect to disposable income.