Vegetation maps and bioclimatic zone classifications communicate the vegetation of an area and are used to explain how the environment regulates the occurrence of plants on large scales. Climatic parameters, floristic characteristics, or edaphic features have been relied upon as decisive factors for developing such schemes. It has been deduced that plants moved between corresponding bioclimatic areas should thrive in the target location, whereas plants moved from a different zone should languish. This notion is routinely applied in forestry and horticulture but actual tests of the validity of bioclimatic maps are scanty. Here the Finnish bioclimatic vegetation zone system is tested. Relying on the plant collection of the Botanic Garden of the University of Helsinki, which is situated at the northern limit of the hemiboreal zone, the relation between the plants’ provenance and survival was studied. The results gave support to the zone system, and especially its hierarchical zonation. The study also shows the importance of botanic gardens paying due attention to information management and curational practices for maintaining the scientific value of their collections.
Bioclimatic architecture is a design concept which has initially been developed during the year 1950s by Victor Olgyay. The idea of bioclimatic design relies on the interrelationship of man, climate and architecture where human comfort is the most important challenge in the design process. Since then, this concept have had a great influence on the thinking and design of many architects and building engineers. Today, we are living in a world where environmental depression, energy insecurity and the unpredictable nature of climate change combine. New thinking and design concepts are required when the increasing cost of energy combines with insecurity of energy supply. The conventional bioclimatic approach therefore needs to be redefined with respect to new challenges such as energy consumption, environmental impacts, new thermal comfort concepts and climate changes. Under a bioclimatic point of view, this book introduces an effort of developing a comprehensive framework to find climate responsive design strategies for residential buildings in developing countries towards comfortable, energy-efficient housing with acceptable construction cost.
This book aims to introduce the impacts of the location and of French legislation on a building design. Through an integrated analysis of the building, guidelines will be drawn in order to obtain a high energy efficient bioclimatic building. This analysis is made in several stages. Energy consumption and efficiency are at the center of the study but economical and environmental aspects are studied too such as CO2 equivalent content and embodied energy.
Application of Remote Sensing in Vegetation: A Practical Insight. Pioneer application of remote sensing in different regime of science clearly sketched a linear path to absorb desirable of any needful without any hurdle. However, the vulnerability of vegetation due to climate change is assuring to monitor change occurs in their wide ranges of temporal scale over large area through application of remote sensing. In this technological era, existing physical interaction in fenced width with updated satellite sensors is reflecting a good amount of wealth which can lucidly explain the existing vegetation status in that regime within a particular time while extraction of empirical vegetation indices from these sensor data surcharges the desirable results.
Australian Vegetation has been an essential reference for students and researchers in botany, ecology and natural resource management for over 35 years. Now fully updated and with a new team of authors, the third edition presents the latest insights on the patterns and processes that shaped the vegetation of Australia. The first part of the book provides a synthesis of ecological processes that influence vegetation traits throughout the continent, using a new classification of vegetation. New chapters examine the influences of climate, soils, fire regimes, herbivores and aboriginal people on vegetation, in addition to completely revised chapters on evolutionary biogeography, quaternary vegetation history and alien plants. The book's second half presents detailed ecological portraits for each major vegetation type and offers data-rich perspectives and comparative analysis presented in tables, graphs, maps and colour illustrations. This authoritative book will inspire readers to learn and explore first-hand the vegetation of Australia.
This volume examines the nature of second language listening proficiency and how it can be assessed. The book highlights the need for test developers to provide a clear explication of the ability constructs which underpin the tests they offer in the public domain. This is increasingly necessary if claims about the validity of test score interpretation and use are to be supported both logically and with empirical evidence. It operationalises a comprehensive test validation framework which adopts a socio-cognitive perspective. The framework embraces six core components, examining and then analysing Cambridge ESOL listening tasks from the following perspectives: Test Taker; Cognitive Validity; Context Validity; Scoring Validity; Criterion-related Validity; and Consequential Validity.
Seyfert galaxies are a subclass of active galaxies and are categorized as nearby, low luminosity, radio-quiet Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) hosted in spiral or lenticular galaxies. Seyfert galaxies are classified mainly into two subclasses named as `type 1' and `type 2' based on the presence and absence of broad permitted emission lines in their optical spectra, respectively. Seyfert unification scheme hypothesizes that Seyfert type 1s and type 2s belong to the same parent population and appear different solely due to the differing orientations of the obscuring material having a torus-like geometry around the AGN. The primary objective of this work is to examine the validity and limitations of the orientation and obscuration based Seyfert unification scheme using multiwavelength (mainly X-ray and radio) observations. It has been emphasized that the key issue in testing the Seyfert unification scheme is acquiring a well defined Seyfert sample. The statistical comparisons of X-ray, radio and IR properties of the two Seyfert subtypes have been discussed in the framework of the unification scheme.
The gravel bed-braided Tenryu River has been selected to understand the interaction between vegetation removal, hydrodynamic parameter and river morphology. Long term trend of vegetation dynamics performed using satellite image and relate those vegetation change with a series of annual maximum flood flow. Less vegetation invasion has been observed before dam construction when peak flood flow occurred. Then, a 2D flood numerical analysis is performed to quantify the parameter responsible for vegetation removal. Bed shear stress and drag moment found suitable to remove plant vegetation within threshold value. The process then further progressed to validate this parameter in a spatial scale. Validation of various years has reported fairly good agreement but still some misjudgments exist. Possible causes of misjudgment hypothesized as absence of sediment transport process in the numerical simulation and some river management activities done by River managers. Then, the effect of sediment transport process on vegetation removal has been observed. The numerical analysis can simulate 86% of total vegetation removal in comparison with aerial photograph analysis.
Understanding ecosystem structure and function requires familiarity with the techniques, knowledge and concepts of the three disciplines of plant physiology, remote sensing and modelling. This is the first textbook to provide the fundamentals of these three domains in a single volume. It then applies cross-disciplinary insights to multiple case studies in vegetation and landscape science. A key feature of these case studies is an examination of relationships among climate, vegetation structure and vegetation function, to address fundamental research questions. This book is for advanced students and researchers who need to understand and apply knowledge from the disciplines of plant physiology, remote sensing and modelling. It allows readers to integrate and synthesise knowledge to produce a holistic understanding of the structure, function and behaviour of forests, woodlands and grasslands.
A new encryption scheme using dynamical 8 ? 8 S-box, based on the composition of chaotic maps, is proposed. In this method, the dynamical S-box, one first uses a known chaotic dynamical system to generate a sequence of pseudo-random bytes, then applies certain permutations to them, using the discretized version of another two dimensional chaotic map. A sequence of pseudo-random bytes generated from two dimensional cat map is used to index the entry of the S-box. The output 8 bits (0-255) of the S-box are XOR-ed with the plaintext to obtain the ciphertext and XOR-ed with the ciphertext to obtain the plaintext. Standard statistical tests of this scheme are performed. We show that this new scheme can generate usable pseudo-random numbers, while maintaining a large enough keyspace for potential use in encryptions.
The Eastern Desert of Egypt occupies 21% (c. 223000 km2) of the total area of Egypt. From the early beginnings of the last century, this desert attracted scientists, especially botanists, to study its flora, ecology and vegetation. This study (between Latitudes 30°00?N and 24°00?N) included an up-to-date checklist of its flora, quantitative analysis of its vegetation, patterns of species distribution, and a proposed phytogeographical map based on GIS analysis techniques of 500 geo-referenced sites as a preliminary step towards a general vegetation map. Classification of the vegetation yielded 20 vegetation associated distributed in 3 major habitats: (1) inland desert, (2) coastal wadis, and (3) roadsides. Fourteen species, mostly weeds, characterized the present survey that neither recorded in previous studies nor in the literature. These may be considered as new additions to the flora of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. On the other hand, 92 historical records (61 perennials, 31 annuals) were documented, and there was no other indication about their presence till to date. These can be considered as extinct. Species of Saharo-Sindian chorotype (element) were the dominant.
Content validity evidence is vital in any testing situation, and in high-stakes testing in particular. The present work reviews the findings of the study carried out on the evaluation of test validity of standardized high-stakes tests in EFL settings in the light of the English Unified School-leaving and University Entrance Exam (USL & UEE). In this research, emphasis was on the evaluation and measurement of the content validity of the mentioned test through statistical procedures and qualitative analysis. Being a new implementation in Armenia, the unified tests more than ever needed to be investigated from the point of view of their validity and reliability, since they may have served as a model for the further improvement of entrance examinations. The test was claimed to have been designed to measure the level of proficiency of EFL students within the scope of secondary school program in Armenia. To determine the extent to which the content of USL & UEE was consistent with the English language program the present study was performed.
The region of Sindh is positioned atop a fertile land making conditions suitable for farming and irrigation. Being centrally connected to the River Indus has gained an advantage in horticulture and farming over the years. The wide variations in geographical conditions, altitude, soil, climate and culture have created a rich floristic diversity in Sindh. The soil of Sindh land is considered fertile and productive for vegetation. The vegetation of Sindh is naturally beautiful scenic for everyone. Vegetation is also considered part of our literature. Poets and writer always refer the beauty of our nature through the vegetation and green fields of homeland. There are multiple uses of vegetation which are commonly employed by local inhabitants as medicine, fodder and fuel even for agricultural purpose. Since a long time the people of Sindh have used different plants including herbs, shrubs and trees for the treatment of diseases locally. It is investigated that local or traditional medicines are cheaper and easily available for common use. The natural vegetation and greenery is vanishing due to overgrazing of domestic animals, salinity, water-logging and floods.
This book addresses the species diversity of Serbal mountain as a part of south Sinai which is very rich in flora and fauna. Serbal mountain characterized by a unique vegetation, lots of endemic, medicinal and threatened plant species. Attention was paid to the ecological studies has been done in the area, floristic composition, land form types, soil conditions, and other physical environmental factors controlling the plant distribution on the mountain. The work included vegetation analysis using the multivariate programs, and classification of most important plant communities and its relationship with environmental factors. The work supported with a species list of associating species, and its ecological situation. Knowledge gained from this book is very helpful in designing a conservation plan which would be a start point for saving natural resources on Serbal mountain.