This volume examines the nature of second language listening proficiency and how it can be assessed. The book highlights the need for test developers to provide a clear explication of the ability constructs which underpin the tests they offer in the public domain. This is increasingly necessary if claims about the validity of test score interpretation and use are to be supported both logically and with empirical evidence. It operationalises a comprehensive test validation framework which adopts a socio-cognitive perspective. The framework embraces six core components, examining and then analysing Cambridge ESOL listening tasks from the following perspectives: Test Taker; Cognitive Validity; Context Validity; Scoring Validity; Criterion-related Validity; and Consequential Validity.
Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/vandermaarelfranklin/vegetationecology. Vegetation Ecology, 2nd Edition is a comprehensive, integrated account of plant communities and their environments. Written by leading experts in their field from four continents, the second edition of this book: covers the composition, structure, ecology, dynamics, diversity, biotic interactions and distribution of plant communities, with an emphasis on functional adaptations; reviews modern developments in vegetation ecology in a historical perspective; presents a coherent view on vegetation ecology while integrating population ecology, dispersal biology, soil biology, ecosystem ecology and global change studies; tackles applied aspects of vegetation ecology, including management of communities and invasive species; includes new chapters addressing the classification and mapping of vegetation, and the significance of plant functional types Vegetation Ecology, 2nd Edition is aimed at advanced undergraduates, graduates and researchers and teachers in plant ecology, geography, forestry and nature conservation. Vegetation Ecology takes an integrated, multidisciplinary approach and will be welcomed as an essential reference for plant ecologists the world over.
Vegetation Description and Data Analysis: A Practical Approach, Second Edition is a fully revised and up-dated edition of this key text. The book takes account of recent advances in the field whilst retaining the original reader-friendly approach to the coverage of vegetation description and multivariate analysis in the context of vegetation data and plant ecology. Since the publication of the hugely popular first edition there have been significant developments in computer hardware and software, new key journals have been established in the field and scope and application of vegetation description and analysis has become a truly global field. This new edition includes full coverage of new developments and technologies. This contemporary and comprehensive edition of this well-known and respected textbook will prove invaluable to undergraduate and graduate students in biological sciences, environmental science, geography, botany, agriculture, forestry and biological conservation. Fully international approach Includes illustrative case studies throughout Now with new material on: the nature of plant communities; transitional areas between plant communities; induction and deduction of plant ecology; diversity indices and dominance diversity curves; multivariate analysis in ecology. Accessible, reader-friendly style Now with new and improved illustrations
How far from reality can you travel in 15 minutes? The stories of One Cup Chronicles take the reader on a gritty, in-depth tour of the Russian underworld, all in the amount of time it takes to drink a single cup of coffee. Discover the dark secret of a famous philanthropist, watch the downfall of a world-renowned gambler, or come along for the ride as a pickpocket accidentally gets tangled up in a malicious scheme – all before your coffee gets cold.
Evolving from years of teaching experience by one of the top experts in vegetation ecology, Data Analysis in Vegetation Ecology aims to explain the background and basics of mathematical (mainly multivariate) analysis of vegetation data. The book lays out the basic operations involved in the analysis, the underlying hypotheses, aims and points of views. It conveys the message that each step in the calculations has a specific, straightforward meaning and that patterns and processes known by ecologists often find their counterpart in mathematical operations and functions. The first chapters introduce the elementary concepts and operations and relate them to real-world phenomena and problems. Later chapters concentrate on combinations of methods to reveal surprising features in data sets. Showing how to find patterns in time series, how to generate simple dynamic models, how to reveal spatial patterns and related occurrence probability maps.
Macmillan English Explorers is an eight-level reading scheme written specifically for children learning English in kindergarten and primary schools. Informed by the National Literacy Strategy and by teaching methodology for first language speakers of English, Macmillan English Explorers are supported by an understanding of the needs of young learners and teachers of English. The scheme, which currently has 48 readers plus supplementary materials, can be used alongside any primary course.
In the year 2301, guns are only museum pieces and benign telepaths sweep the minds of the populace to detect crimes before they happen. In 2301 murder is virtually impossible, but one man is about to change that... Ben Reich, a psychopathic business magnate, has devised the ultimate scheme to eliminate the competition and destroy the order of his society. The Demolished Man is a masterpiece of imaginative suspense, set in a superbly imagined world in which everything has changed except the ancient instinct for murder.
Most books dedicated to the issues of bio-sensing are organized by the well-known scheme of a biosensor. In this book, the authors have deliberately decided to break away from the conventional way of treating biosensing research by uniquely addressing biomolecule immobilization methods on a solid surface, fluidics issues and biosensing-related transduction techniques, rather than focusing simply on the biosensor. The aim is to provide a contemporary snapshot of the biosensing landscape without neglecting the seminal references or products where needed, following the downscaling (from the micro- to the nanoscale) of biosensors and their respective best known applications. To conclude, a brief overview of the most popularized nanodevices applied to biology is given, before comparing biosensor criteria in terms of targeted applications.
Adam Smith is celebrated all over the world as the author of The Wealth of Nations and the founder of modern economics. A few of his ideas ? such as the ?Invisible Hand? of the market - have become icons of the modern world. Yet Smith saw himself primarily as a philosopher rather than an economist, and would never have predicted that the ideas for which he is now best known were his most important. This book, by one of the leading scholars of the Scottish Enlightenment, shows the extent to which The Wealth of Nations and Smith?s other great work, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, were part of a larger scheme to establish a grand ?Science of Man?, one of the most ambitious projects of the European Enlightenment, which was to encompass law, history and aesthetics as well as economics and ethics. Nicholas Phillipson reconstructs Smith?s intellectual ancestry and formation, of which he gives a radically new and convincing account. He shows Smith's interactions with the rapidly changing and subtly different intellectual and commercial cultures of Glasgow and Edinburgh as they entered the great years of the Scottish Enlightenment. Above all he explains how far Smith?s ideas developed in dialogue with those of his closest friend, the other titan of the age, David Hume. This superb biography is now the one book which anyone interested in the founder of economics must read.
In this introductory treatment Ali Nayfeh presents different concepts from dynamical systems theory and nonlinear dynamics in a rigorous yet plan way. He systematically introduces models and techniques and states the relevant ranges of validity and applicability. The reader is provided with a clear operational framework for consciously use rather than focused on the underlying mathematical apparatus. The exposition is largely by means of examples, dealt with up to their final outcome. For most of the examples, the results obtained with the method of normal forms are equivalent to those obtained with other perturbation methods, such as the method of multiple scales and the method of averaging. The previous edition had a remarkable success by researchers from all over the world working in the area of nonlinear dynamics and their applications in engineering. Additions to this new edition concern major topics of current interest. In particular, the author added three new chapters dedicated to Maps, Bifurcations of Continuous Systems, and Retarded Systems. In particular the latter has become of major importance in several applications, both in mechanics and in different areas. Accessible to engineers and applied scientist involved with nonlinear dynamics and their applications in a wide variety of fields. It is assumed that readers have a knowledge of basic calculus as well as the elementary properties of ordinary-differential equations.
Sir Arthur Tansley was the leading figure in ecology for the first half of the 20th century, founding the field, and forming its first professional societies. He was the first President of the British Ecological Society and the first chair of the Field Studies Council. His work as a botanist is considered seminal and he is recognized as one of the giants of ecology throughout the world. Ecology underpins the principles and practices of modern conservation and the maintenance of biodiversity. It explains the causes of, and offers solutions to, problems of climate change. Yet ecology is a young science, barely 100 years old. Its origins lie in phytogeography, the naming and mapping of plants. Shaping Ecology is a book about a multi-faceted man whose friends included Bertrand Russell, Marie Stopes, Julian Huxley, GM Trevelyan, and Solly Zuckerman. Historical context is provided by Tansley's family for his parents moved in the Fabian-socialist world of John Ruskin and Octavia Hill, both instrumental in the foundation of the National Trust. While Britain was relatively slow to protect its green spaces and wildlife, it did establish in 1913 the first professional Ecological Society in the world. Tansley was its President. Organising the British Vegetation Committee and initiating a series of International Phytogeographic Excursions, he changed phytogeography into ecology.
A provocative look at the tools and history of real analysis This new edition of Real Analysis: A Historical Approach continues to serve as an interesting read for students of analysis. Combining historical coverage with a superb introductory treatment, this book helps readers easily make the transition from concrete to abstract ideas. The book begins with an exciting sampling of classic and famous problems first posed by some of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Archimedes, Fermat, Newton, and Euler are each summoned in turn, illuminating the utility of infinite, power, and trigonometric series in both pure and applied mathematics. Next, Dr. Stahl develops the basic tools of advanced calculus, which introduce the various aspects of the completeness of the real number system as well as sequential continuity and differentiability and lead to the Intermediate and Mean Value Theorems. The Second Edition features: A chapter on the Riemann integral, including the subject of uniform continuity Explicit coverage of the epsilon-delta convergence A discussion of the modern preference for the viewpoint of sequences over that of series Throughout the book, numerous applications and examples reinforce concepts and demonstrate the validity of historical methods and results, while appended excerpts from original historical works shed light on the concerns of influential mathematicians in addition to the difficulties encountered in their work. Each chapter concludes with exercises ranging in level of complexity, and partial solutions are provided at the end of the book. Real Analysis: A Historical Approach, Second Edition is an ideal book for courses on real analysis and mathematical analysis at the undergraduate level. The book is also a valuable resource for secondary mathematics teachers and mathematicians.
This book offers a comprehensive overview of progress in the general area of fluvial remote sensing with a specific focus on its potential contribution to river management. The book highlights a range of challenging issues by considering a range of spatial and temporal scales with perspectives from a variety of disciplines. The book starts with an overview of the technical progress leading to new management applications for a range of field contexts and spatial scales. Topics include colour imagery, multi-spectral and hyper-spectral imagery, video, photogrammetry and LiDAR. The book then discusses management applications such as targeted, network scale, planning, land-use change modelling at catchment scales, characterisation of channel reaches (riparian vegetation, geomorphic features) in both spatial and temporal dimensions, fish habitat assessment, flow measurement, monitoring river restoration and maintenance and, the appraisal of human perceptions of riverscapes. Key Features: • A specific focus on management applications in a period of increasing demands on managers to characterize river features and their evolution at different spatial scales • An integration across all scales of imagery with a clear discussion of both ground based and airborne images • Includes a wide-range of environmental problems • Coverage of cutting-edge technology • Contributions from leading researchers in the field