This volume examines the nature of second language listening proficiency and how it can be assessed. The book highlights the need for test developers to provide a clear explication of the ability constructs which underpin the tests they offer in the public domain. This is increasingly necessary if claims about the validity of test score interpretation and use are to be supported both logically and with empirical evidence. It operationalises a comprehensive test validation framework which adopts a socio-cognitive perspective. The framework embraces six core components, examining and then analysing Cambridge ESOL listening tasks from the following perspectives: Test Taker; Cognitive Validity; Context Validity; Scoring Validity; Criterion-related Validity; and Consequential Validity.
Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/vandermaarelfranklin/vegetationecology. Vegetation Ecology, 2nd Edition is a comprehensive, integrated account of plant communities and their environments. Written by leading experts in their field from four continents, the second edition of this book: covers the composition, structure, ecology, dynamics, diversity, biotic interactions and distribution of plant communities, with an emphasis on functional adaptations; reviews modern developments in vegetation ecology in a historical perspective; presents a coherent view on vegetation ecology while integrating population ecology, dispersal biology, soil biology, ecosystem ecology and global change studies; tackles applied aspects of vegetation ecology, including management of communities and invasive species; includes new chapters addressing the classification and mapping of vegetation, and the significance of plant functional types Vegetation Ecology, 2nd Edition is aimed at advanced undergraduates, graduates and researchers and teachers in plant ecology, geography, forestry and nature conservation. Vegetation Ecology takes an integrated, multidisciplinary approach and will be welcomed as an essential reference for plant ecologists the world over.
Vegetation Description and Data Analysis: A Practical Approach, Second Edition is a fully revised and up-dated edition of this key text. The book takes account of recent advances in the field whilst retaining the original reader-friendly approach to the coverage of vegetation description and multivariate analysis in the context of vegetation data and plant ecology. Since the publication of the hugely popular first edition there have been significant developments in computer hardware and software, new key journals have been established in the field and scope and application of vegetation description and analysis has become a truly global field. This new edition includes full coverage of new developments and technologies. This contemporary and comprehensive edition of this well-known and respected textbook will prove invaluable to undergraduate and graduate students in biological sciences, environmental science, geography, botany, agriculture, forestry and biological conservation. Fully international approach Includes illustrative case studies throughout Now with new material on: the nature of plant communities; transitional areas between plant communities; induction and deduction of plant ecology; diversity indices and dominance diversity curves; multivariate analysis in ecology. Accessible, reader-friendly style Now with new and improved illustrations
Evolving from years of teaching experience by one of the top experts in vegetation ecology, Data Analysis in Vegetation Ecology aims to explain the background and basics of mathematical (mainly multivariate) analysis of vegetation data. The book lays out the basic operations involved in the analysis, the underlying hypotheses, aims and points of views. It conveys the message that each step in the calculations has a specific, straightforward meaning and that patterns and processes known by ecologists often find their counterpart in mathematical operations and functions. The first chapters introduce the elementary concepts and operations and relate them to real-world phenomena and problems. Later chapters concentrate on combinations of methods to reveal surprising features in data sets. Showing how to find patterns in time series, how to generate simple dynamic models, how to reveal spatial patterns and related occurrence probability maps.
How far from reality can you travel in 15 minutes? The stories of One Cup Chronicles take the reader on a gritty, in-depth tour of the Russian underworld, all in the amount of time it takes to drink a single cup of coffee. Discover the dark secret of a famous philanthropist, watch the downfall of a world-renowned gambler, or come along for the ride as a pickpocket accidentally gets tangled up in a malicious scheme – all before your coffee gets cold.
Most books dedicated to the issues of bio-sensing are organized by the well-known scheme of a biosensor. In this book, the authors have deliberately decided to break away from the conventional way of treating biosensing research by uniquely addressing biomolecule immobilization methods on a solid surface, fluidics issues and biosensing-related transduction techniques, rather than focusing simply on the biosensor. The aim is to provide a contemporary snapshot of the biosensing landscape without neglecting the seminal references or products where needed, following the downscaling (from the micro- to the nanoscale) of biosensors and their respective best known applications. To conclude, a brief overview of the most popularized nanodevices applied to biology is given, before comparing biosensor criteria in terms of targeted applications.
Bram Stoker (1847-1912) was an Irish novelist, best known today for his universally famous gothic novel "Dracula," the main villain of which is still one of the most popular antagonists in the modern media. The novel "The Mystery of the Sea" tells the story of Archibald Hunter, an Englishman from Aberdeenshire, Scotland, who meets and falls in love with an American heiress Marjory Drake. She is involved with the intrigues of the Spanish-American War, and all of a sudden, Archibald becomes a participant in a complex scheme including kidnapping, secret codes and even second sight that unfolds in front of him over the course of the story.
Adam Smith is celebrated all over the world as the author of The Wealth of Nations and the founder of modern economics. A few of his ideas ? such as the ?Invisible Hand? of the market - have become icons of the modern world. Yet Smith saw himself primarily as a philosopher rather than an economist, and would never have predicted that the ideas for which he is now best known were his most important. This book, by one of the leading scholars of the Scottish Enlightenment, shows the extent to which The Wealth of Nations and Smith?s other great work, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, were part of a larger scheme to establish a grand ?Science of Man?, one of the most ambitious projects of the European Enlightenment, which was to encompass law, history and aesthetics as well as economics and ethics. Nicholas Phillipson reconstructs Smith?s intellectual ancestry and formation, of which he gives a radically new and convincing account. He shows Smith's interactions with the rapidly changing and subtly different intellectual and commercial cultures of Glasgow and Edinburgh as they entered the great years of the Scottish Enlightenment. Above all he explains how far Smith?s ideas developed in dialogue with those of his closest friend, the other titan of the age, David Hume. This superb biography is now the one book which anyone interested in the founder of economics must read.
Sir Arthur Tansley was the leading figure in ecology for the first half of the 20th century, founding the field, and forming its first professional societies. He was the first President of the British Ecological Society and the first chair of the Field Studies Council. His work as a botanist is considered seminal and he is recognized as one of the giants of ecology throughout the world. Ecology underpins the principles and practices of modern conservation and the maintenance of biodiversity. It explains the causes of, and offers solutions to, problems of climate change. Yet ecology is a young science, barely 100 years old. Its origins lie in phytogeography, the naming and mapping of plants. Shaping Ecology is a book about a multi-faceted man whose friends included Bertrand Russell, Marie Stopes, Julian Huxley, GM Trevelyan, and Solly Zuckerman. Historical context is provided by Tansley's family for his parents moved in the Fabian-socialist world of John Ruskin and Octavia Hill, both instrumental in the foundation of the National Trust. While Britain was relatively slow to protect its green spaces and wildlife, it did establish in 1913 the first professional Ecological Society in the world. Tansley was its President. Organising the British Vegetation Committee and initiating a series of International Phytogeographic Excursions, he changed phytogeography into ecology.
In this book, the self-healing of composite structures with shape memory polymer as either matrix or embedded suture is systematically discussed. Self-healing has been well known in biological systems for many years: a typical example is the self-healing of human skin. Whilst a minor wound can be self-closed by blood clotting, a deep and wide cut needs external help by suturing. Inspired by this observation, this book proposes a two-step close-then-heal (CTH) scheme for healing wide-opened cracks in composite structures–by constrained shape recovery first, followed by molecular healing. It is demonstrated that the CTH scheme can heal wide-opened structural cracks repeatedly, efficiently, timely, and molecularly. It is believed that self-healing represents the next-generation technology and will become an engineering reality in the near future. The book consists of both fundamental background and practical skills for implementing the CTH scheme, with additional focus on understanding strain memory versus stress memory and healing efficiency evaluation under various fracture modes. Potential applications to civil engineering structures, including sealant for bridge decks and concrete pavements, and rutting resistant asphalt pavements, are also explored. This book will help readers to understand this emerging field, and to establish a framework for new innovation in this direction. Key features: explores potential applications of shape memory polymers in civil engineering structures, which is believed to be unique within the literature balanced testing and mathematical modeling, useful for both academic researchers and practitioners the self-healing scheme is based on physical change of polymers and is written in an easy to understand style for engineering professionals without a strong background in chemistry
This book offers a comprehensive overview of progress in the general area of fluvial remote sensing with a specific focus on its potential contribution to river management. The book highlights a range of challenging issues by considering a range of spatial and temporal scales with perspectives from a variety of disciplines. The book starts with an overview of the technical progress leading to new management applications for a range of field contexts and spatial scales. Topics include colour imagery, multi-spectral and hyper-spectral imagery, video, photogrammetry and LiDAR. The book then discusses management applications such as targeted, network scale, planning, land-use change modelling at catchment scales, characterisation of channel reaches (riparian vegetation, geomorphic features) in both spatial and temporal dimensions, fish habitat assessment, flow measurement, monitoring river restoration and maintenance and, the appraisal of human perceptions of riverscapes. Key Features: • A specific focus on management applications in a period of increasing demands on managers to characterize river features and their evolution at different spatial scales • An integration across all scales of imagery with a clear discussion of both ground based and airborne images • Includes a wide-range of environmental problems • Coverage of cutting-edge technology • Contributions from leading researchers in the field
Relax into the creative world of colouring. Containing a beautiful and diverse collection of illustrations, this fantastic book will allow the artist within you to shine! This edition contains a selection of over 40 animal artworks for you to complete in your chosen colour scheme. You can make your finished artworks as simple or as complex as you like - whichever you choose, youll be astounded by the results. Welcome to the wonderful world of Zen Colouring!
In this introductory treatment Ali Nayfeh presents different concepts from dynamical systems theory and nonlinear dynamics in a rigorous yet plan way. He systematically introduces models and techniques and states the relevant ranges of validity and applicability. The reader is provided with a clear operational framework for consciously use rather than focused on the underlying mathematical apparatus. The exposition is largely by means of examples, dealt with up to their final outcome. For most of the examples, the results obtained with the method of normal forms are equivalent to those obtained with other perturbation methods, such as the method of multiple scales and the method of averaging. The previous edition had a remarkable success by researchers from all over the world working in the area of nonlinear dynamics and their applications in engineering. Additions to this new edition concern major topics of current interest. In particular, the author added three new chapters dedicated to Maps, Bifurcations of Continuous Systems, and Retarded Systems. In particular the latter has become of major importance in several applications, both in mechanics and in different areas. Accessible to engineers and applied scientist involved with nonlinear dynamics and their applications in a wide variety of fields. It is assumed that readers have a knowledge of basic calculus as well as the elementary properties of ordinary-differential equations.
Winner of the Marsh Book of the Year Award 2012 by the British Ecological Society. In A Resource-Based Habitat View for Conservation Roger Dennis introduces a novel approach to the understanding of habitats based on resources and conditions required by organisms and their access to them, a quantum shift from simplistic and ineffectual notions of habitats as vegetation units or biotopes. In drawing attention to what organisms actually use and need in landscapes, it focuses on resource composition, structure and connectedness, all of which describe habitat quality and underpin landscape heterogeneity. This contrasts with the current bipolar view of landscapes made up of habitat patches and empty matrix but illustrates how such a metapopulation approach of isolated patchworks can grow by adopting the new habitat viewpoint. The book explores principles underlying this new definition of habitat, and the impact of habitat components on populations, species’ distributions, geographical ranges and range changes, with a view to conserving resources in landscapes for whole communities. It does this using the example of butterflies – the most alluring of insects, flagship organisms and key indicators of environmental health – in the British Isles, where they have been studied most intensively. The book forms essential reading for students, researchers and practitioners in ecology and conservation, particularly those concerned with managing sites and landscapes for wildlife.