A World History of Rubber helps readers understand and gain new insights into the social and cultural contexts of global production and consumption, from the nineteenth century to today, through the fascinating story of one commodity. Divides the coverage into themes of race, migration, and labor; gender on plantations and in factories; demand and everyday consumption; World Wars and nationalism; and resistance and independence Highlights the interrelatedness of our world long before the age of globalization and the global social inequalities that persist today Discusses key concepts of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, including imperialism, industrialization, racism, and inequality, through the lens of rubber Provides an engaging and accessible narrative for all levels that is filled with archival research, illustrations, and maps
A comprehensive guide to making better capital structure and corporate financing decisions in today's dynamic business environment Given the dramatic changes that have recently occurred in the economy, the topic of capital structure and corporate financing decisions is critically important. The fact is that firms need to constantly revisit their portfolio of debt, equity, and hybrid securities to finance assets, operations, and future growth. Capital Structure and Corporate Financing Decisions provides an in-depth examination of critical capital structure topics, including discussions of basic capital structure components, key theories and practices, and practical application in an increasingly complex corporate world. Throughout, the book emphasizes how a sound capital structure simultaneously minimizes the firm's cost of capital and maximizes the value to shareholders. Offers a strategic focus that allows you to understand how financing decisions relates to a firm's overall corporate policy Consists of contributed chapters from both academics and experienced professionals, offering a variety of perspectives and a rich interplay of ideas Contains information from survey research describing actual financial practices of firms This valuable resource takes a practical approach to capital structure by discussing why various theories make sense and how firms use them to solve problems and create wealth. In the wake of the recent financial crisis, the insights found here are essential to excelling in today's volatile business environment.
How much further should the affluent world push its material consumption? Does relative dematerialization lead to absolute decline in demand for materials? These and many other questions are discussed and answered in Making the Modern World: Materials and Dematerialization. Over the course of time, the modern world has become dependent on unprecedented flows of materials. Now even the most efficient production processes and the highest practical rates of recycling may not be enough to result in dematerialization rates that would be high enough to negate the rising demand for materials generated by continuing population growth and rising standards of living. This book explores the costs of this dependence and the potential for substantial dematerialization of modern economies. Making the Modern World: Materials and Dematerialization considers the principal materials used throughout history, from wood and stone, through to metals, alloys, plastics and silicon, describing their extraction and production as well as their dominant applications. The evolving productivities of material extraction, processing, synthesis, finishing and distribution, and the energy costs and environmental impact of rising material consumption are examined in detail. The book concludes with an outlook for the future, discussing the prospects for dematerialization and potential constrains on materials. This interdisciplinary text provides useful perspectives for readers with backgrounds including resource economics, environmental studies, energy analysis, mineral geology, industrial organization, manufacturing and material science.
The aim of this book is to update knowledge and summarise recent research on pseudocereals, particularly regarding their botanical characteristics, composition, structure, use, production, technology and impact on human health. In the last few years, pseudocereals – in particular amaranth and quinoa – have acquired increased importance (which is also due to the increased demand for gluten?]free food). Worldwide, the demand for amaranth and quinoa has risen immensely, as seen in rising prices for amaranth and quinoa. At the same time, research in all relevant fields has intensified. At present there is some confusion surrounding the term ‘pseudocereals’ and what it does and does not include, for example kiwicha which is Amaranthus caudatus or kaniwa which is Chenopodium pallidicaule. Sometimes other grains are included in the pseudocereal group like chia (Salvia hispanica L), an oleaginous seed. One of the aims of the book is to clear up some of the confusion over what is included in the group of pseudocereals. The book will include: the origin, production and utilization of pseudocereals; structure and composition of kernels; carbohydrates/fibre/bioactive compounds of kernels; proteins and amino acids of kernels; lipids of kernels; pseudocereal dry and wet milling: processes, products and applications; food uses of whole pseudocereals; pseudocereals in gluten free products; and the nutritional and health implications of pseudocereal intake.
In the 21st Century, the world will see an unprecedented migration of people moving from rural to urban areas. With global demand for water projected to outstrip supply in the coming decades, cities will likely face water insecurity as a result of climate change and the various impacts of urbanisation. Traditionally, urban water managers have relied on large-scale, supply-side infrastructural projects to meet increased demands for water; however, these projects are environmentally, economically and politically costly. Urban Water Security argues that cities need to transition from supply-side to demand-side management to achieve urban water security. This book provides readers with a series of in-depth case studies of leading developed cities, of differing climates, incomes and lifestyles from around the world, that have used demand management tools to modify the attitudes and behaviour of water users in an attempt to achieve urban water security. Urban Water Security will be of particular interest to town and regional planners, water conservation managers and policymakers, international companies and organisations with large water footprints, environmental and water NGOs, researchers, graduate and undergraduate students. Robert C. Brears is the founder of Mitidaption, Mark and Focus, is Director on the International Board of the Indo Global Chamber of Commerce, Industries and Agriculture, and a Visiting Fellow (non-resident) at the Center for Conflict Studies at MIIS, Monterey, USA.
An introduction to the concepts and principles of architectural structures in an easy-to-read format Written as an easy-to-understand primer on the topic, Structure for Architects engages readers through instruction that uses a highly visual format and real-world examples to underline the key facets of structural principles that are essential to the design process. Eschewing complicated mathematics and technical jargon, Structure for Architects demystifies the subject matter by showing it in the context of everyday situations, giving architects and architectural technologists a clear understanding of how to incorporate structural principles into their designs. Highlights of this book include: A rich collection of drawings, photographs, and diagrams, spread throughout the text, which demonstrate fundamental structural concepts using everyday examples An overview of structural design basics, as well as a summary of structural forms A look at the design implications of steel, reinforced concrete, and wood By providing an overall view of structures that covers the essentials of what architects and architectural technologists need to know, Structure for Architects is a valuable tool for illustrating the importance of designing with structure in mind and for learning the basics that are necessary for collaborating confidently with project team members.
Distinguished metaphysicians examine issues central to the high-profile debate between philosophers over how to classify the natural world, and discuss issues in applied ontology such as the classification of diseases. Leading metaphysicians explore fundamental questions related to the classification and structure of the natural world An essential commentary on issues at the heart of the contemporary debate between philosophy and science Interweaves discussion of overarching themes with detailed material on applied ontology
The present study analyzes the stability of the demand for money function in India over the period 1991:M4–2014:M9 using co-integration and Vector Error Correction Mechanism (VECM ) framework. From analysis, it has been observed that there exists a stable demand for money function in India during the post-reforms period, i. e. a long-run relationship does exist between demand for real balances, national output (Yt ), rate of interest (Rt) and exchange rate (ERt). Two variables Yt and ERt have been observed to be affecting demand for real balances positively, while the observed effect of M2 is negative. Thus, the signs and magnitudes of all three regressors have been observed according to a-priori information without any paradoxical situation.
Structure from Motion with Multi View Stereo provides hyperscale landform models using images acquired from standard compact cameras and a network of ground control points. The technique is not limited in temporal frequency and can provide point cloud data comparable in density and accuracy to those generated by terrestrial and airborne laser scanning at a fraction of the cost. It therefore offers exciting opportunities to characterise surface topography in unprecedented detail and, with multi-temporal data, to detect elevation, position and volumetric changes that are symptomatic of earth surface processes. This book firstly places Structure from Motion in the context of other digital surveying methods and details the Structure from Motion workflow including available software packages and assessments of uncertainty and accuracy. It then critically reviews current usage of Structure from Motion in the geosciences, provides a synthesis of recent validation studies and looks to the future by highlighting opportunities arising from developments in allied disciplines. This book will appeal to academics, students and industry professionals because it balances technical knowledge of the Structure from Motion workflow with practical guidelines for image acquisition, image processing and data quality assessment and includes case studies that have been contributed by experts from around the world.
“Shadow” is a fairy tale for me, for you and your children. “Shadow” is a fairy tale about life, love and self-understanding. “Shadow” is a new rendition of ideas about world structure and our place in it. On the pages of the book the author tells not just the story of the heroes’ fates who created the new world, he shows ourselves in every action, in every experience, letting us realize our involvement in the universal plan.
Gathering leading specialists in the field of structure prediction, this book provides a unique view of this complex and rapidly developing field, reflecting the numerous viewpoints of the different authors. A summary of the major achievements over the last few years and of the challenges still remaining makes this monograph very timely.
Inside the risk management and corporate governance issues behind capital structure decisions Practical ways of determining capital structures have always been mysterious and riddled with risks and uncertainties. Dynamic paradigm shifts and the multi-dimensional operations of firms further complicate the situation. Financial leaders are under constant pressure to outdo their competitors, but how to do so is not always clear. Capital Structure Decisions offers an introduction to corporate finance, and provides valuable insights into the decision-making processes that face the CEOs and CFOs of organizations in dynamic multi-objective environments. Exploring the various models and techniques used to understand the capital structure of an organization, as well as the products and means available for financing these structures, the book covers how to develop a goal programming model to enable organization leaders to make better capital structure decisions. Incorporating international case studies to explain various financial models and to illustrate ways that capital structure choices determine their success, Capital Structure Decisions looks at existing models and the development of a new goal-programming model for capital structures that is capable of handling multiple objectives, with an emphasis throughout on mitigating risk. Helps financial leaders understand corporate finance and the decision-making processes involved in understanding and developing capital structure Includes case studies from around the world that explain key financial models Emphasizes ways to minimize risk when it comes to working with capital structures There are a number of criteria that financial leaders need to consider before making any major capital investment decision. Capital Structure Decisions analyzes the various risk management and corporate governance issues to be considered by any diligent CEO/CFO before approving a project.