Metallic starch capped gold nanoparticles have been synthesized by the reduction of chloroaurate anions [AuCl4]- solution with hydrazine in the aqueous starch and ethylene glycol solution at room temperature and at atmospheric pressure. The characterization of synthesized gold nanoparticles by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicate that average size of pure gold NPs is 5-10 nm, they are spherical in shape and are pure metallic gold. Starch capped gold nanoparticles along with tyrosinase enzyme are effectively entrapped within sol-gel matrix for application in catechol biosensor. Enzymatic reaction between tyrosinase and catechol results in the formation of a colored compound which shows characteristic absorbance at 410 nm. Starch@AuNPs based catechol biosensor showed fast response with linearity for catechol sensing from 1 to 5 mM. Effect of buffer pH and its concentration was also studied and results showed drastic changes in absorption intensity with pH and concentration variation. Along with catechol biosensor, starch capped gold NPs find their application in glucose, urease and peroxide biosensor, owing to their stability.
The starch capped Ag nanoparticles were obtained by the chemical reduction of AgNO3 and they were characterized by the isolation of DNA from E.Coli (pUC18) has resulted in single strand DNA which was subsequently modified with Traut’s reagent. The introduction of thiol group to the DNA by Traut’s reagent facilitates the formation of bioconjugate. The Ag-DNA bioconjugate was characterized by spectroscopic techniques and SEM studies. The comparative study of the scanning electron micrographs of the free DNA and the bioconjugate clearly demonstrated the binding of Ag nanoparticles with DNA through the linker group. The vibrational spectrum of the bioconjugates also provides additional evidence to its formation. The Surface Plasmon Resonance spectrum of the Ag nanoparticles exhibits its absorption maximum at 419nm while its DNA bioconjugate shows its absorption maximum at 437 nm. It has been used as a biosensor.
Nanotechnology is defined as the understanding, manipulating and controlling things at the nanoscale, where the unique properties of materials arises that enable novel applications. Gold is considered to be noble among all metals due to its resistance to surface oxidation because of this, it is known as the king of the metals. Contrary to the nobility of bulk gold, exciting properties can be attributed to gold at the nanoscale. Gold nanoparticles (AuNps) can be used for clinical developments in cell labeling, providing contrast in biological imaging, drug design and time bound delivery at the specific location of the disease. This book contains the techniques of preparing different sizes of gold nanoparticles stabilized with citrate, starch and gum arabic. The AuNps were studied for their in vitro stability as a function of time of storage at room temperature, change of pH and the addition of different concentration of an electrolyte. In vitro cytotoxicitiy studies were performed on gold nanoparticles with different sizes and different stabilizer. MTT, LDH and Neutral red cell cytotoxicity assay were performed on gold nanoparticles with MCF-7 and PC-3 cell lines. The AuNps
Heroine is synthetic derivative of morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from unripe seeds or capsules of Papaver somniferum (poppy plant). The use of heroine and morphine as a recreational drug has reached epidemic proportion, largely because of increased availability. The currently used techniques for the detection of opiate drugs are time consuming, expensive and not amenable to on-site application. This book describes about development of a highly sensitive, fast, reliable, field applicable and cost effective immunoassay/ immunobiosensor for the detection of opiate drugs: morphine and heroin, the most addictive and commonly abused narcotics. Various types of immunoassay are described in this book using enzyme, fluorophore, carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles and phage display detection which shows detection limit in the ppb range without the aid of any sophisticated instrument.
In this technique, the production of molecular framework and polymer is done using meta acrylic acid monomers, which are formed via covalence connection between meta acrylic acid monomers (MAA) of white polymer. Here also hydrogenic connection between exotoxin amino acid and meta acrylic acid is made that would function as the selective absorption for that. Then in the second stage, based on the bacterial antibody connection to nanoparticel, a sensor was used. In this part of the research, as the basis for absorption for the recognition of bacterial toxin, medium sized silica nanoparticles of 10 nano meter in form of solid powder were utilized with Notrino brand. Then the suspension produced from agent-linked nanosilica which was connected to bacterial antibody was positioned near the samples of distilled water, that were contaminated with Staphylococcus Aureus bacterial toxin with the density of 10-3, so that in case any toxin exists in the sample, a connection between toxin antigen and antibody would be formed. Finally, the light absorption related to the connection of antigen to the particle attached antibody was measured using spectrophotometry.
Despite the availability of hydroxypropyl starch (HPS) as commercial water soluble starch derivatives, synthesis of HPS through hydroxypropylation of maize starch was systematically studied in current work. This was done with a view to have tailored HPS products which can better serve as a reducing and stabilizing agent during the preparation of silver nanoparticles. Solution containing 1620 ppm silver nanoparticles was diluted to 50 ppm and 100 ppm The diluted solutions were applied to cotton fabrics in presence and absence of a binder to impart antibacterial properties to the fabrics. Solution containing 50 ppm silver nanoparticles induce excellent and durable bactericidal activity to cotton fabrics.
Gold Nanoparticles exhibit intrinsic surface reactivity and high surface areas and can strongly chemisorb Mercury, Lead and Cadmium. The size, surface structure and interparticle interaction of nanomaterials determine their unique properties and the improved performances and make their potential application in many areas. Monitoring the levels of Hg , Pb, Cd along with Malathion and Chloropyrifos pesticides using Gold Nanoparticles is a continuous research and it is necessary to detect the concentration levels of Hg, Pb, Cd and Malathion, Chloropyrifos pesticide residues in various environmental samples upto PPb levels following analytical techniques. Further Gold Nanoparticles will be used for monitoring the levels of Hg, Cd, Pb, and other pesticide residues in various environmental samples. In future, this project will become the basis for monitoring the levels of Heavy metals and pesticide residues present in various environmental, biological and pharmaceutical samples.
In this book, the first principle studies on the ground state structure, binding energy, and magnetic moment of gold-coated Fen, bare Fen, and their oxides, FenO2 have been carried out within a density functional formalism. The first systematic theoretical study of gold-coated iron nanoclusters, aiming at understanding the magnetic properties of this core-shell structure used in biomedical applications. The calculations based on density-functional theory focus on the effect of gold coating on the magnetic and structural properties of iron clusters of various sizes, and the reaction of the bare iron clusters with oxygen. My results show that the magnetic moment of iron nanocore with gold coating is still significantly higher than that in bulk Fe; the coupling between Fe atoms remained ferromagnetic. The improved chemical stability by gold coating prevents the iron core from oxidation as well as the coalescence and formation of thromboses in the body. Thus, it is shown that gold coating is very promising for the magnetic particles to be functionalized for targeted drug delivery.
Nanoparticles and nanostructural materials are central to fundamental studies, applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology, due to their novel electronic luminescent and magnetic properties that are not present in the bulk forms. Among the various nanostructural materials, Cadmium Selenide and other II–VI compound semiconductors are important for optoelectronic materials, which have been intensively studied due to their applications in light-emitting diodes, catalysis, solar cells and biomedical labeling. In the present investigations, Co (II) ion doped PVA capped CdSe nanoparticles are prepared at room temperature by using chemical vapour deposition method.
The impact of advances in nanotechnology is particularly relevant in biodiagnostics, where nanoparticles based assays have been developed for specific detection of bioanalytes of clinical interest. Gold nanoparticles show easily tuned physical properties, including unique optical properties, robustness, and high surface areas, making them ideal candidates for developing biomarker platforms. Modulation of these physicochemical properties can be easily achieved by adequate synthetic strategies and give gold nanoparticles advantages over conventional detection methods currently used in clinical diagnostics. The surface of gold nanoparticles can be tailored by ligand functionalization to selectively bind biomarkers. Simple and inexpensive methods based on these bio-nanoprobes are presently being expanded to clinical diagnosis as well. In a nutshell, nanoparticles hold great promise in the future of disease diagnostics.
Recently, nanotechnology became an integral part of drug design especially in the area of targeted drug delivery. The nanoparticles are characterized by the ability to target deep tissues, easily surface decoration, controlling the drug release, ease of detection and follow up, high stability and good biocompatibility. Gold nanoparticles represent very important class of nanoparticles and it is expected to have great impact on drug development. The intention of this manuscript is to address the most recent medicinal application of gold nanoparticles especially in the area of targeted drug delivery. This manuscript will be very helpful for academic, students, pharmaceutical companies and peoples working in targeted drug delivery.
This book is aimed at Master’s and Doctoral students who carry out their research work in the field of polymeric Nanoparticles, Nanoliposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, Gold and silver NPs, Carbon nanotubes and Quantum dots.It helps the researchers in designing formulation strategy of nanoparticles for the delivery of anticancer agents. This book definitely fulfils the need of scientists working in this area.
The growing demand for point-of-care analytical systems requires novel miniaturised and sophisticated sensor systems. This book describes the development of an all-polymer biosensor platform for electrochemical detection of analytes from liquid media. Conductive polymers were employed for the electrical structures, while aptamers were used as recognition elements. The wide range of applicability of this sensor is shown on the basis of three different analytical challenges.
The combination of biological molecules and CNTs is of great importance in developing miniaturized sensor devices for future clinical diagnostic and electronics applications. Biosensing technology using aligned CNTs solely depends upon amplified signals generated by biomolecular interactions. Aligned CNTs have huge potential as electrochemical sensors as they provide enhanced electron transfer in redox reactions due to high length to diameter (aspect ratio). CNT based functional devices including transistors, sensor, emitters and energy units require vertically aligned CNTs with a high length to diameter aspect ratio and their ability to mediate electron transfer reactions of electroactive species in solution when used as electrode material. Carbon nanotubes have been proved as better electrode materials than traditional carbon electrodes, clay nanoparticles and conducting polymers etc. due to their proficient charge transfer capability and high chemical stability. Major Aim of this book is to present clear idea to the readers who intend to devise a highly sensitive and efficient vertically aligned CNT based electrochemical sensors.
Surface plasmon resonances in nanoparticles have numerous promising scientific and technological applications in such areas as nanophotonics, near-field microscopy, nano-lithography, biosensor, metamaterial and optical data storage. Consequently, the understanding of plasmon resonances in nanoparticles has both fundamental and practical significance. In this book, a new efficient numerical technique to fully characterize the plasmon resonances in three-dimensional nanoparticles is presented. In this technique, the problem of determining the plasmon resonant frequencies is framed as an integral equation based eigenvalue problem, and the plasmon resonant frequencies can be directly found through the solution of this eigenvalue problem. The numerical implementation of this technique is discussed in detail and numerous computational results are presented and compared with both theoretical and experimental data. The integral equation based numerical technique presented throughout this book can be instrumental for the design of plasmon resonant nanoparticles and to tailor their optical properties for various applications.