Metallic starch capped gold nanoparticles have been synthesized by the reduction of chloroaurate anions [AuCl4]- solution with hydrazine in the aqueous starch and ethylene glycol solution at room temperature and at atmospheric pressure. The characterization of synthesized gold nanoparticles by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicate that average size of pure gold NPs is 5-10 nm, they are spherical in shape and are pure metallic gold. Starch capped gold nanoparticles along with tyrosinase enzyme are effectively entrapped within sol-gel matrix for application in catechol biosensor. Enzymatic reaction between tyrosinase and catechol results in the formation of a colored compound which shows characteristic absorbance at 410 nm. Starch@AuNPs based catechol biosensor showed fast response with linearity for catechol sensing from 1 to 5 mM. Effect of buffer pH and its concentration was also studied and results showed drastic changes in absorption intensity with pH and concentration variation. Along with catechol biosensor, starch capped gold NPs find their application in glucose, urease and peroxide biosensor, owing to their stability.
The starch capped Ag nanoparticles were obtained by the chemical reduction of AgNO3 and they were characterized by the isolation of DNA from E.Coli (pUC18) has resulted in single strand DNA which was subsequently modified with Traut’s reagent. The introduction of thiol group to the DNA by Traut’s reagent facilitates the formation of bioconjugate. The Ag-DNA bioconjugate was characterized by spectroscopic techniques and SEM studies. The comparative study of the scanning electron micrographs of the free DNA and the bioconjugate clearly demonstrated the binding of Ag nanoparticles with DNA through the linker group. The vibrational spectrum of the bioconjugates also provides additional evidence to its formation. The Surface Plasmon Resonance spectrum of the Ag nanoparticles exhibits its absorption maximum at 419nm while its DNA bioconjugate shows its absorption maximum at 437 nm. It has been used as a biosensor.
Nanotechnology is defined as the understanding, manipulating and controlling things at the nanoscale, where the unique properties of materials arises that enable novel applications. Gold is considered to be noble among all metals due to its resistance to surface oxidation because of this, it is known as the king of the metals. Contrary to the nobility of bulk gold, exciting properties can be attributed to gold at the nanoscale. Gold nanoparticles (AuNps) can be used for clinical developments in cell labeling, providing contrast in biological imaging, drug design and time bound delivery at the specific location of the disease. This book contains the techniques of preparing different sizes of gold nanoparticles stabilized with citrate, starch and gum arabic. The AuNps were studied for their in vitro stability as a function of time of storage at room temperature, change of pH and the addition of different concentration of an electrolyte. In vitro cytotoxicitiy studies were performed on gold nanoparticles with different sizes and different stabilizer. MTT, LDH and Neutral red cell cytotoxicity assay were performed on gold nanoparticles with MCF-7 and PC-3 cell lines. The AuNps
Despite the availability of hydroxypropyl starch (HPS) as commercial water soluble starch derivatives, synthesis of HPS through hydroxypropylation of maize starch was systematically studied in current work. This was done with a view to have tailored HPS products which can better serve as a reducing and stabilizing agent during the preparation of silver nanoparticles. Solution containing 1620 ppm silver nanoparticles was diluted to 50 ppm and 100 ppm The diluted solutions were applied to cotton fabrics in presence and absence of a binder to impart antibacterial properties to the fabrics. Solution containing 50 ppm silver nanoparticles induce excellent and durable bactericidal activity to cotton fabrics.
Nanoparticles and nanostructural materials are central to fundamental studies, applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology, due to their novel electronic luminescent and magnetic properties that are not present in the bulk forms. Among the various nanostructural materials, Cadmium Selenide and other II–VI compound semiconductors are important for optoelectronic materials, which have been intensively studied due to their applications in light-emitting diodes, catalysis, solar cells and biomedical labeling. In the present investigations, Co (II) ion doped PVA capped CdSe nanoparticles are prepared at room temperature by using chemical vapour deposition method.
The impact of advances in nanotechnology is particularly relevant in biodiagnostics, where nanoparticles based assays have been developed for specific detection of bioanalytes of clinical interest. Gold nanoparticles show easily tuned physical properties, including unique optical properties, robustness, and high surface areas, making them ideal candidates for developing biomarker platforms. Modulation of these physicochemical properties can be easily achieved by adequate synthetic strategies and give gold nanoparticles advantages over conventional detection methods currently used in clinical diagnostics. The surface of gold nanoparticles can be tailored by ligand functionalization to selectively bind biomarkers. Simple and inexpensive methods based on these bio-nanoprobes are presently being expanded to clinical diagnosis as well. In a nutshell, nanoparticles hold great promise in the future of disease diagnostics.
A simple approach for the synthesis of gold coated iron oxide nanoparticles as well as its structural, morphological, magnetic and optical study have been discussed in the light of different techniques. Morphology of prepared particles by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and structure of Iron Oxide by XRD analysis have been explained. Optical and magnetic behaviour of pure gold (Au) and Fe2O3@ Au core shell nanoparticles have been discussed using Uv-Vis Spectroscopy & VSM respectively. These core shell nanoparticles are useful in targeted drug delivery system.
This book is aimed at Master’s and Doctoral students who carry out their research work in the field of polymeric Nanoparticles, Nanoliposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, Gold and silver NPs, Carbon nanotubes and Quantum dots.It helps the researchers in designing formulation strategy of nanoparticles for the delivery of anticancer agents. This book definitely fulfils the need of scientists working in this area.
Recently, nanotechnology became an integral part of drug design especially in the area of targeted drug delivery. The nanoparticles are characterized by the ability to target deep tissues, easily surface decoration, controlling the drug release, ease of detection and follow up, high stability and good biocompatibility. Gold nanoparticles represent very important class of nanoparticles and it is expected to have great impact on drug development. The intention of this manuscript is to address the most recent medicinal application of gold nanoparticles especially in the area of targeted drug delivery. This manuscript will be very helpful for academic, students, pharmaceutical companies and peoples working in targeted drug delivery.
The present work deals with the synthesis and characterization of capped ZnS nanostructures and their optical and morphological studies. Tunable emission in semiconductor nano sized II-VI materials was observed by changing particle size. Also doped ZnS nanoparticles are also useful for tuning emission color. For that different samples having different particle size or different dopants were required. But here we present tunable emission in single sample by changing excitation conditions. Tunable emission in whole visible region including white light is observed in a single sample. These synthesized nanoparticles are also tested for their bisensing ability by tagging them with staphylococcus aueurs (SAU) bacteria. Some introductory results of capping ZnS NPs with DNA and their enzyme sensing studies have been presented.
Demand for biosensor research applications is growing steadily. According to a new report by Frost & Sullivan, the biosensor market is expected to reach $14.42 billion by 2016. Clinical diagnostic applications continue to be the largest market for biosensors, and this demand is likely to continue through 2016 and beyond. Biosensor technology for use in clinical diagnostics, however, requires translational research that moves bench science and theoretical knowledge toward marketable products. Despite the high volume of academic research to date, only a handful of biomedical devices have become viable commercial applications. Academic research must increase its focus on practical uses for biosensors. This book is an example of this increased focus, and discusses work to advance microfluidic-based protein biosensor technologies for practical use in clinical diagnostics.
The increasing demand for starch base glues has made the conversion of starch to glue an important industrial process. The basic kinetics in the industrial process for the conversion of starch to glue involves starch gelatinisation at low temperatures, under strong alkali conditions. This demand for starch base glues notwithstanding, much less is known about alkali gelatinisation-compared to thermal gelatinisation-and especially no kinetic approach has appeared in open literature. This book provides an approach for modeling strach gelatinisation relevant to the adhesive industry.
Biosensor employing organelles in immobilized form are widely used in environmental monitoring. These immobilized organelles play vital role in sensitivity, accuracy, and stability of the biosensor system. Some of the organelle used for immobilization is whole cell, protein, enzyme and DNA. Traditionally biosensor used whole cell from one individual strain of microorganism. This concept limits the biosensor detection to certain specific samples alone. Detection of the content of the samples depends on the properties of the immobilized microbial cell. For detection of broad range of samples, novel biosenor using mixed microbial cultures is being designed in this dissertation.
Surface plasmon resonances in nanoparticles have numerous promising scientific and technological applications in such areas as nanophotonics, near-field microscopy, nano-lithography, biosensor, metamaterial and optical data storage. Consequently, the understanding of plasmon resonances in nanoparticles has both fundamental and practical significance. In this book, a new efficient numerical technique to fully characterize the plasmon resonances in three-dimensional nanoparticles is presented. In this technique, the problem of determining the plasmon resonant frequencies is framed as an integral equation based eigenvalue problem, and the plasmon resonant frequencies can be directly found through the solution of this eigenvalue problem. The numerical implementation of this technique is discussed in detail and numerous computational results are presented and compared with both theoretical and experimental data. The integral equation based numerical technique presented throughout this book can be instrumental for the design of plasmon resonant nanoparticles and to tailor their optical properties for various applications.
Gold nanoparticles are characterised by their small size to volume ratio and extensive thermal stability. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are an obvious choice in medical application due to their amenability of synthesis and functionalization, less toxicity and ease of detection. The present paper focuses on treatment of the breast cancer by high energy photons of gamma ray nd gold nanoparticles while preserving the shape of the breast and prevents the risk of recurrence of breast cancer. This of course in a minimum dose given for patient i.e. enhancing the radiotherapy that is used in breast cancer treatment due to pair production phenomena