Recent progress in VLSI provides massive parallelism but general purpose parallel computers remain elusive due to limited communications performance. This book proposes a new high level approach to programming that addresses the pragmatic issue of how a computation is distributed across a machine.The book's approach is based on functional programming and has significant advantages over existing comparable approaches, extending the domain of functional programming to include computer architectures in which communication costs are not negligible. It looks at how high-level functional programming languages can be used to specify, reason about, and implement parallel programs for a variety of multiprocessor systems, but in particular a class of loosely coupled multiprocessors whose operation can be described by a process network In these networks the nodes correspond to processes and the arcs to communications channels.A simple language called Caliban is described in which the functional program text is augmented with a declarative description of how processes are partitioned and mapped onto a network of processing elements. The notation gains expressive power by allowing these annotations to be generated by predicates defined in the functional language. Thus, common communications structures have simple and concise definitions as "network forming operators." The main objective of these annotations is to provide an abstract description of the process network specified by the program so that an efficient mapping of processes to processors can be carried out by the compiler. Paul H.J. Kelly is Research Assistant in the Department of Computing at Imperial College, London Functional Programming for Loosely-Coupled Multiprocessors is included in the series Research Monographs in Parallel and Distributed Computing, copublished with Pitman Publishing.
The new digital media offers us an unprecedented memory capacity, an ubiquitous communication channel and a growing computing power. How can we exploit this medium to augment our personal and social cognitive processes at the service of human development? Combining a deep knowledge of humanities and social sciences as well as a real familiarity with computer science issues, this book explains the collaborative construction of a global hypercortex coordinated by a computable metalanguage. By recognizing fully the symbolic and social nature of human cognition, we could transform our current opaque global brain into a reflexive collective intelligence.
Programming Massively Parallel Processors: A Hands-on Approach shows both student and professional alike the basic concepts of parallel programming and GPU architecture. Concise, intuitive, and practical, it is based on years of road-testing in the authors' own parallel computing courses. Various techniques for constructing parallel programs are explored in detail, while case studies demonstrate the development process, which begins with computational thinking and ends with effective and efficient parallel programs. Topics of performance, parallel patterns, and dynamic parallelism are covered in depth. The new edition includes updated coverage of CUDA, including the newer libraries such as CuDNN. New chapters on frequently used parallel patterns have been added, and case studies have been updated to reflect current industry practices.NEW FOR THE THIRD EDITION- Parallel Patterns Includes several new chapters on frequently used parallel patterns (histogram, merge sort, and graph search).- Deep Learning A new chapter on deep learning has been added as an application case study.- Advanced CUDA Features The advanced features of CUDA are explored in a new chapter.- Pascal Recent GPU architectural features are covered, including Pascal.
This book addresses issues related to managing data across a distributed database system. It is unique because it covers traditional database theory and current research, explaining the difficulties in providing a unified user interface and global data dictionary. The book gives implementers guidance on hiding discrepancies across systems and creating the illusion of a single repository for users. It also includes three sample frameworks—implemented using J2SE with JMS, J2EE, and Microsoft .Net—that readers can use to learn how to implement a distributed database management system. IT and development groups and computer sciences/software engineering graduates will find this guide invaluable.
Semantic Web technology is already changing how we interact with data on the Web. By connecting random information on the Internet in new ways, Web 3.0, as it is sometimes called, represents an exciting online evolution. Whether you’re a consumer doing research online, a business owner who wants to offer your customers the most useful Web site, or an IT manager eager to understand Semantic Web solutions, Semantic Web For Dummies is the place to start! It will help you: Know how the typical Internet user will recognize the effects of the Semantic Web Explore all the benefits the data Web offers to businesses and decide whether it’s right for your business Make sense of the technology and identify applications for it See how the Semantic Web is about data while the “old” Internet was about documents Tour the architectures, strategies, and standards involved in Semantic Web technology Learn a bit about the languages that make it all work: Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Web Ontology Language (OWL) Discover the variety of information-based jobs that could become available in a data-driven economy You’ll also find a quick primer on tech specifications, some key priorities for CIOs, and tools to help you sort the hype from the reality. There are case studies of early Semantic Web successes and a list of common myths you may encounter. Whether you’re incorporating the Semantic Web in the workplace or using it at home, Semantic Web For Dummies will help you define, develop, implement, and use Web 3.0.
Spoken language understanding (SLU) is an emerging field in between speech and language processing, investigating human/ machine and human/ human communication by leveraging technologies from signal processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and artificial intelligence. SLU systems are designed to extract the meaning from speech utterances and its applications are vast, from voice search in mobile devices to meeting summarization, attracting interest from both commercial and academic sectors. Both human/machine and human/human communications can benefit from the application of SLU, using differing tasks and approaches to better understand and utilize such communications. This book covers the state-of-the-art approaches for the most popular SLU tasks with chapters written by well-known researchers in the respective fields. Key features include: Presents a fully integrated view of the two distinct disciplines of speech processing and language processing for SLU tasks. Defines what is possible today for SLU as an enabling technology for enterprise (e.g., customer care centers or company meetings), and consumer (e.g., entertainment, mobile, car, robot, or smart environments) applications and outlines the key research areas. Provides a unique source of distilled information on methods for computer modeling of semantic information in human/machine and human/human conversations. This book can be successfully used for graduate courses in electronics engineering, computer science or computational linguistics. Moreover, technologists interested in processing spoken communications will find it a useful source of collated information of the topic drawn from the two distinct disciplines of speech processing and language processing under the new area of SLU.
A cookbook of algorithms for common image processing applications Thanks to advances in computer hardware and software, algorithms have been developed that support sophisticated image processing without requiring an extensive background in mathematics. This bestselling book has been fully updated with the newest of these, including 2D vision methods in content-based searches and the use of graphics cards as image processing computational aids. It’s an ideal reference for software engineers and developers, advanced programmers, graphics programmers, scientists, and other specialists who require highly specialized image processing. Algorithms now exist for a wide variety of sophisticated image processing applications required by software engineers and developers, advanced programmers, graphics programmers, scientists, and related specialists This bestselling book has been completely updated to include the latest algorithms, including 2D vision methods in content-based searches, details on modern classifier methods, and graphics cards used as image processing computational aids Saves hours of mathematical calculating by using distributed processing and GPU programming, and gives non-mathematicians the shortcuts needed to program relatively sophisticated applications. Algorithms for Image Processing and Computer Vision, 2nd Edition provides the tools to speed development of image processing applications.
Digital Design of Signal Processing Systems discusses a spectrum of architectures and methods for effective implementation of algorithms in hardware (HW). Encompassing all facets of the subject this book includes conversion of algorithms from floating-point to fixed-point format, parallel architectures for basic computational blocks, Verilog Hardware Description Language (HDL), SystemVerilog and coding guidelines for synthesis. The book also covers system level design of Multi Processor System on Chip (MPSoC); a consideration of different design methodologies including Network on Chip (NoC) and Kahn Process Network (KPN) based connectivity among processing elements. A special emphasis is placed on implementing streaming applications like a digital communication system in HW. Several novel architectures for implementing commonly used algorithms in signal processing are also revealed. With a comprehensive coverage of topics the book provides an appropriate mix of examples to illustrate the design methodology. Key Features: A practical guide to designing efficient digital systems, covering the complete spectrum of digital design from a digital signal processing perspective Provides a full account of HW building blocks and their architectures, while also elaborating effective use of embedded computational resources such as multipliers, adders and memories in FPGAs Covers a system level architecture using NoC and KPN for streaming applications, giving examples of structuring MATLAB code and its easy mapping in HW for these applications Explains state machine based and Micro-Program architectures with comprehensive case studies for mapping complex applications The techniques and examples discussed in this book are used in the award winning products from the Center for Advanced Research in Engineering (CARE). Software Defined Radio, 10 Gigabit VoIP monitoring system and Digital Surveillance equipment has respectively won APICTA (Asia Pacific Information and Communication Alliance) awards in 2010 for their unique and effective designs.
This book presents a unified frequency-domain method for the analysis of distributed control systems. The following important topics are discussed by using the proposed frequency-domain method: (1) Scalable stability criteria of networks of distributed control systems; (2) Effect of heterogeneous delays on the stability of a network of distributed control system; (3) Stability of Internet congestion control algorithms; and (4) Consensus in multi-agent systems. This book is ideal for graduate students in control, networking and robotics, as well as researchers in the fields of control theory and networking who are interested in learning and applying distributed control algorithms or frequency-domain analysis methods.
Introducing a new, pioneering approach to integrated circuit design Nanometer Frequency Synthesis Beyond Phase-Locked Loop introduces an innovative new way of looking at frequency that promises to open new frontiers in modern integrated circuit (IC) design. While most books on frequency synthesis deal with the phase-locked loop (PLL), this book focuses on the clock signal. It revisits the concept of frequency, solves longstanding problems in on-chip clock generation, and presents a new time-based information processing approach for future chip design. Beginning with the basics, the book explains how clock signal is used in electronic applications and outlines the shortcomings of conventional frequency synthesis techniques for dealing with clock generation problems. It introduces the breakthrough concept of Time-Average-Frequency, presents the Flying-Adder circuit architecture for the implementation of this approach, and reveals a new circuit device, the Digital-to-Frequency Converter (DFC). Lastly, it builds upon these three key components to explain the use of time rather than level to represent information in signal processing. Provocative, inspiring, and chock-full of ideas for future innovations, the book features: A new way of thinking about the fundamental concept of clock frequency A new circuit architecture for frequency synthesis: the Flying-Adder direct period synthesis A new electronic component: the Digital-to-Frequency Converter A new information processing approach: time-based vs. level-based Examples demonstrating the power of this technology to build better, cheaper, and faster systems Written with the intent of showing readers how to think outside the box, Nanometer Frequency Synthesis Beyond the Phase-Locked Loop is a must-have resource for IC design engineers and researchers as well as anyone who would like to be at the forefront of modern circuit design.
This book covers the most essential techniques for designing and building dependable distributed systems. Instead of covering a broad range of research works for each dependability strategy, the book focuses only a selected few (usually the most seminal works, the most practical approaches, or the first publication of each approach) are included and explained in depth, usually with a comprehensive set of examples. The goal is to dissect each technique thoroughly so that readers who are not familiar with dependable distributed computing can actually grasp the technique after studying the book. The book contains eight chapters. The first chapter introduces the basic concepts and terminologies of dependable distributed computing, and also provide an overview of the primary means for achieving dependability. The second chapter describes in detail the checkpointing and logging mechanisms, which are the most commonly used means to achieve limited degree of fault tolerance. Such mechanisms also serve as the foundation for more sophisticated dependability solutions. Chapter three covers the works on recovery-oriented computing, which focus on the practical techniques that reduce the fault detection and recovery times for Internet-based applications. Chapter four outlines the replication techniques for data and service fault tolerance. This chapter also pays particular attention to optimistic replication and the CAP theorem. Chapter five explains a few seminal works on group communication systems. Chapter six introduces the distributed consensus problem and covers a number of Paxos family algorithms in depth. Chapter seven introduces the Byzantine generals problem and its latest solutions, including the seminal Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) algorithm and a number of its derivatives. The final chapter covers the latest research results on application-aware Byzantine fault tolerance, which is an important step forward towards practical use of Byzantine fault tolerance techniques.
A Research-Driven Resource on Building Biochemical Systems to Perform Information Processing Functions Information Processing by Biochemical Systems describes fully delineated biochemical systems, organized as neural network–type assemblies. It explains the relationship between these two apparently unrelated fields, revealing how biochemical systems have the advantage of using the «language» of the physiological processes and, therefore, can be organized into the neural network–type assemblies, much in the way that natural biosystems are. A wealth of information is included concerning both the experimental aspects (such as materials and equipment used) and the computational procedures involved. This authoritative reference: Addresses network-type connectivity, considered to be a key feature underlying the information processing ability of the brain Describes novel scientific achievements, and serves as an aid for those interested in further developing biochemical systems that will perform information-processing functions Provides a viable approach for furthering progress in the area of molecular electronics and biocomputing Includes results obtained in experimental studies involving a variety of real enzyme systems Information Processing by Biochemical Systems is intended for graduate students and professionals, as well as biotechnologists.
The energy consumption issue in distributed computing systems raises various monetary, environmental and system performance concerns. Electricity consumption in the US doubled from 2000 to 2005. From a financial and environmental standpoint, reducing the consumption of electricity is important, yet these reforms must not lead to performance degradation of the computing systems. These contradicting constraints create a suite of complex problems that need to be resolved in order to lead to 'greener' distributed computing systems. This book brings together a group of outstanding researchers that investigate the different facets of green and energy efficient distributed computing. Key features: One of the first books of its kind Features latest research findings on emerging topics by well-known scientists Valuable research for grad students, postdocs, and researchers Research will greatly feed into other technologies and application domains
A PROVEN APPROACH FOR CREATING and IMPLEMENTING EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE for DATA and ANALYTICS Financial Institution Advantage and the Optimization of Information Processing offers a key resource for understanding and implementing effective data governance practices and data modeling within financial organizations. Sean Keenan—a noted expert on the topic—outlines the strategic core competencies, includes best practices, and suggests a set of mechanisms for self-evaluation. He shows what it takes for an institution to evaluate its information processing capability and how to take the practical steps toward improving it. Keenan outlines the strategies and tools needed for financial institutions to take charge and make the much-needed decisions to ensure that their firm's information processing assets are effectively designed, deployed, and utilized to meet the strict regulatory guidelines. This important resource is filled with practical observations about how information assets can be actively and effectively managed to create competitive advantage and improved financial results. Financial Institution Advantage and the Optimization of Information Processing also includes a survey of case studies that highlight both the positive and less positive results that have stemmed from institutions either recognizing or failing to recognize the strategic importance of information processing capabilities.