Biosensors are nowadays a powerful tool to enable the detection of specific biological interactions and to evaluate the concentration dependence in the response. A biosensor usually consists of three different parts: the sample to be measured, the transducer and the electronic system that amplifies the signal, analyzes the data and brings a result to the final user. When the analyte interacts with the bioreceptor, the transducer sends a signal that is processed by the electronics. All this process occurs in a efficient, quick, cheap, simple and specific way. Optical biosensors are the most powerful ones for investigating processes at the solid/liquid interface. Among them the grating coupler is immune to electromagnetic interferences, pushes the sensitivity to levels even higher than other techniques and allows for the direct monitoring of macromolecular adsorption. Taking advantage of the last advances in nanotechnology, this book studies the versatility of an Optical Grating Coupler Biosensor. The design of new grating sensor chips is investigated, a new calibration technique for the sensors is proposed and different biomedical scenarios are tested.
A must-have compendium on biomedical telemetry for all biomedical professional engineers, researchers, and graduate students in the field Handbook of Biomedical Telemetry describes the main components of a typical biomedical telemetry system, as well as its technical challenges. Written by a diverse group of experts in the field, it is filled with overviews, highly-detailed scientific analyses, and example applications of biomedical telemetry. The book also addresses technologies for biomedical sensing and design of biomedical telemetry devices with special emphasis on powering/integration issues and materials for biomedical telemetry applications. Handbook of Biomedical Telemetry: Describes the main components of a typical biomedical telemetry system, along with the technical challenges Discusses issues of spectrum regulations, standards, and interoperability—while major technical challenges related to advanced materials, miniaturization, and biocompatibility issues are also included Covers body area electromagnetics, inductive coupling, antennas for biomedical telemetry, intra-body communications, non-RF communication links for biomedical telemetry (optical biotelemetry), as well as safety issues, human phantoms, and exposure assessment to high-frequency biotelemetry fields Presents biosensor network topologies and standards; context-aware sensing and multi-sensor fusion; security and privacy issues in biomedical telemetry; and the connection between biomedical telemetry and telemedicine Introduces clinical applications of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) in addition to selected examples of wearable, implantable, ingestible devices, stimulator and integrated mobile healthcare system paradigms for monitoring and therapeutic intervention Covering biomedical telemetry devices, biosensor network topologies and standards, clinical applications, wearable and implantable devices, and the effects on the mobile healthcare system, this compendium is a must-have for professional engineers, researchers, and graduate students.
Demand for biosensor research applications is growing steadily. According to a new report by Frost & Sullivan, the biosensor market is expected to reach $14.42 billion by 2016. Clinical diagnostic applications continue to be the largest market for biosensors, and this demand is likely to continue through 2016 and beyond. Biosensor technology for use in clinical diagnostics, however, requires translational research that moves bench science and theoretical knowledge toward marketable products. Despite the high volume of academic research to date, only a handful of biomedical devices have become viable commercial applications. Academic research must increase its focus on practical uses for biosensors. This book is an example of this increased focus, and discusses work to advance microfluidic-based protein biosensor technologies for practical use in clinical diagnostics.
Biomedical electronics and instruments, equipment, diagnostic & detection tools success based on the success of high sensitive biosensors invention and development. Biosensors are the active electronic, semiconductor electronics, optoelectronics or other technologies related devices which sense biological signal from membrane in the form of antibodies, antigens, bacteria''s, viruses, glucose, oxygen, pH etc called signal/stimuli/receptor at the contact of membrane and biosensor with transducer along with biological sensing element called “ion-electron-interfacing” from where signal convert into detectable electrical signals through transduction principles and measured at computerized electronic signal processing system. This monograph strongly related only about optoelectronic biosensor, in which discussed investigated evanescent wave optical fiber biosensor is one of the strong light carry biological information sensation and high speed detection sensor. Book deal with review, research and fundamental modeling.
Optical fibre-based devices (e.g. fibre gratings) play an important role in the optical communications and sensing industry. One type of fibre grating, the long-period grating (LPG),is becoming more and more popular as a simple and versatile component for a number of applications in optical engineering. Long period grating is obtained by introducing a periodic refractive index modulation in the core of an optical fibre. The phase matching condition causes light to couple from core mode to forward propagating cladding mode. These cladding modes attenuate rapidly on propagation and thus resulting in distinct resonance bands in transmission spectrum. The sensitivity of LPGs to various external perturbations and their ability to manipulate selectively light propagating in optical fibres make them well-suited to creating fibre-based devices. LPGs can be used in various applications, for example as gain equalisers for erbium-doped fibre amplifiers, as channel routers in optical add-drop multiplexers and as sensors. LPGs are typically fabricated by exposing photosensitive optical fibre to ultraviolet light.
This book aims towards the introduction of nanobiosensor technology and its extensive application in the biomedical detection of clinically important analytes such as; cancer cells, anticancer drugs, proteins etc. The fabrication of the biosensor system is described using various conducting polymers and nanomaterial composites. The content of the book also describes the step by step characterization of biosensor surface using various analytical techniques such as; x-ray photon spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy etc. The real sample applications of the biosensor has been explained in detail using various relevant examples. This book is an attempt to explain the graduate students to start up their experiments and also help them to conceptualize ideas and its representation.
In recent past magnetic nanoparticles have been explored for a number of biomedical applications due to their superparamagnetic moment with high magnetic saturation value. For the various biomedical applications, magnetic nanoparticles are require to being monodispersed so that the individual nanoparticle has almost identical physico-chemical properties for biodistribution, bioelimination and contrast imaging potential. Further, the surface functionalization/modification of magnetic nanoparticles ultimately facilitates the enzyme immobilization, remediation of heavy metal ions, drug delivery and hyperthermia applications. The essential goal of this work is to evaluate the recent advances of magnetic nanoparticles for different biomedical applications.
This book aims to study the propagation and transmission characteristics of a variety of all optical couplers to achieve an efficient all optical coupling, steering, multi-frequency generation and logic gates by aptly modeled coupler geometries. The odyssey of the study begins with a brief introduction to the fundamentals of the nonlinear optics, nonlinear effects, photopolymer fibers, PCF and the analytical tools necessary to explore the system dynamics. Two kinds of nonlinear couplers are considered for the study, namely photopolymer- and photonic crystal fiber- (PCF) coupler. And a special attention is paid towards the coupler made of PCF for its special light guiding properties and design support. The study of photonic crystal fiber coupler (PCFC) involves the modeling of suitable coupler geometry at preferred telecommunication carrier wavelength and followed with the precise determination of the basic optical parameters such as dispersion, nonlinearity, coupling length and confinement loss by employing finite element method (FEM). The theme of the study will primarily focus on steering characteristics for diverse all optical applications.
A practical learning tool for building a solid understanding of biomedical ultrasound Basics of Biomedical Ultrasound for Engineers is a structured textbook that leads the novice through the field in a clear, step-by-step manner. Based on twenty years of teaching experience, it begins with the most basic definitions of waves, proceeds to ultrasound in fluids and solids, explains the principles of wave attenuation and reflection, then introduces to the reader the principles of focusing devices, ultrasonic transducers, and acoustic fields, and then delves into integrative applications of ultrasound in conventional and advanced medical imaging techniques (including Doppler imaging) and therapeutic ultrasound. Demonstrative medical applications are interleaved within the text and exemplary questions with solutions are provided on every chapter. Readers will come away with the basic toolkit of knowledge they need to successfully use ultrasound in biomedicine and conduct research. Encompasses a wide range of topics within biomedical ultrasound, from attenuation and eflection of waves to the intricacies of focusing devices, transducers, acoustic fields, modern medical imaging techniques, and therapeutics Explains the most common applications of biomedical ultrasound from an engineering point of view Provides need-to-know information in the form of physical and mathematical principles directed at concrete applications Fills in holes in knowledge caused by ever-increasing new applications of ultrasonic imaging and therapy Basics of Biomedical Ultrasound for Engineers is designed for undergraduate and graduate engineering students; academic/research engineers unfamiliar with ultrasound; and physicians and researchers in biomedical disciplines who need an introduction to the field. This book is meant to be “my first book on biomedical ultrasound” for anyone who is interested in the field.
This book briefly overviews progress on development of MEMS based microfluidic devices such as micropumps, microneedles, micromixers and micro flow cytometers for biomedical applications. Design, analysis and fabrication of MEMS based piezoelectrically actuated polymeric valveless micropumps is also presented. The book provides a valuable reference for researchers working on design and development of MEMS-based microfluidic devices for biomedical applications.
Laser and fiber optics applications have opened some new possibilities in medicine and dentistry. Advanced diagnostic techniques and laser-based therapeutic techniques have been developed. Here, we have introduced some new techniques for medical and dental applications using lasers and modern optics. The main task of our work is biomedical applications of lasers. A new approach based on image holography is applied for dental deformation measurement. The advantages of this technique compare to existing techniques are shown. Imaging and deformation measurement of in-plane and out-plane deformations is performed using the interferometric fringes. Interferograms obtained by holographic-based techniques are shown. The imaging technique, based on optical implementation of moments as to our best knowledge, is introduced for the first time in biomedical applications. In addition to this Fourier Transform of far Field diffraction technique is introduced as well. A simple and robust technique based on the Moire phenomenon is applied. Using Moire fringes generated by two gratings and their projection on the object to be analyzed, contours and 3-D information are obtained.
The present book is an embodiment of the investigations intended at developing simple inexpensive synthetic methods for producing luminescent carbon quantum dot applicable for sensor and biomedical applications. The in vitro applications of synthesized materials have also been investigated. It includes the low cost synthetic route for fabrication of carbon quantum dots (CD) and their composites for sensing and bioimaging applications.
This handbook focuses on biopolymers for both environmental and biomedical applications. It shows recent advances in technology in all areas from chemical synthesis or biosynthesis to end use applications. These areas have not been covered in a single book before and they include biopolymers for chemical and biotechnological modifications, material structures, characterization, processing, properties, and applications. After the introduction which summarizes the importance of biopolymer in the market, the book covers almost all the topics related to polysaccharides, biofibers, bioplastics, biocomposites, natural rubber, gums, bacterial and blood compatible polymers, and applications of biopolymers in various fields.
Since the breakthrough of fiber industries after inventing photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) in 1996, research on PCFs is ongoing with full speed as PCFs contain a wavelength-scale morphological microstructure running down their lengths which provide PCFs tunable optical properties as per design requirements. These properties of PCFs have attracted researchers to think an unimaginable thinking, which was quite impossible using conventional optical fibers before coming these new technologies. As a result, PCFs have become an attractive and endless research fields in different research areas including biomedical engineering, tomographic imaging techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) along with other promising applications in different sectors. Therefore, this book focuses on numerical modeling and properties optimization of PCFs for generating supercontinuum (SC) in normal dispersion region for various OCT applications.
This book focuses heavily on the principles, analysis and applications of code-division multiple-access (CDMA) techniques in optical communication systems and networks. In this book, the authors intimately discuss modern optical networks and their applications in current and emerging communication technologies, evaluating the quality, speed and number of supported services. In particular, principles and fundamentals of optical CDMA techniques from beginner to advanced levels are heavily covered. Furthermore, the authors concentrate on methods and techniques of various encoding and decoding schemes and their structures, as well as analysis of optical CDMA systems with various transceiver models including advanced multi-level incoherent and coherent modulations with the architecture of access/aggregation networks in mind. Moreover, authors examine intriguing topics of optical CDMA networking, compatibility with IP networks, and implementation of optical multi-rate multi-service CDMA networks. Key features: Expanded coverage of optical CDMA networks, starts from principles and fundamentals Comprehensive mathematical modelling and analysis from signal to system levels Addresses the applications of modern optical networking in the current and emerging communication technologies Greater focus on advanced optical multi-level incoherent and coherent modulations, spreading codes, and transceiver designs Detailed hardware specifications, system-level block diagrams, and network nodes’ functionalities This book appeals to researchers, practicing engineers, and advanced students. It is a practical resource for readers with an interest in optical communications and networks.