Presents a systematic treatment of fuzzy fractional differential equations as well as newly developed computational methods to model uncertain physical problems Complete with comprehensive results and solutions, Fuzzy Arbitrary Order System: Fuzzy Fractional Differential Equations and Applications details newly developed methods of fuzzy computational techniquesneeded to model solve uncertainty. Fuzzy differential equations are solved via various analytical andnumerical methodologies, and this book presents their importance for problem solving, prototypeengineering design, and systems testing in uncertain environments. In recent years, modeling of differential equations for arbitrary and fractional order systems has been increasing in its applicability, and as such, the authors feature examples from a variety of disciplines to illustrate the practicality and importance of the methods within physics, applied mathematics, engineering, and chemistry, to name a few. The fundamentals of fractional differential equations and the basic preliminaries of fuzzy fractional differential equations are first introduced, followed by numerical solutions, comparisons of various methods, and simulated results. In addition, fuzzy ordinary, partial, linear, and nonlinear fractional differential equations are addressed to solve uncertainty in physical systems. In addition, this book features: Basic preliminaries of fuzzy set theory, an introduction of fuzzy arbitrary order differential equations, and various analytical and numerical procedures for solving associated problems Coverage on a variety of fuzzy fractional differential equations including structural, diffusion, and chemical problems as well as heat equations and biomathematical applications Discussions on how to model physical problems in terms of nonprobabilistic methods and provides systematic coverage of fuzzy fractional differential equations and its applications Uncertainties in systems and processes with a fuzzy concept Fuzzy Arbitrary Order System: Fuzzy Fractional Differential Equations and Applications is an ideal resource for practitioners, researchers, and academicians in applied mathematics, physics, biology, engineering, computer science, and chemistry who need to model uncertain physical phenomena and problems. The book is appropriate for graduate-level courses on fractional differential equations for students majoring in applied mathematics, engineering, physics, and computer science.

Collocation based on piecewise polynomial approximation represents a powerful class of methods for the numerical solution of initial-value problems for functional differential and integral equations arising in a wide spectrum of applications, including biological and physical phenomena. The present book introduces the reader to the general principles underlying these methods and then describes in detail their convergence properties when applied to ordinary differential equations, functional equations with (Volterra type) memory terms, delay equations, and differential-algebraic and integral-algebraic equations. Each chapter starts with a self-contained introduction to the relevant theory of the class of equations under consideration. Numerous exercises and examples are supplied, along with extensive historical and bibliographical notes utilising the vast annotated reference list of over 1300 items. In sum, Hermann Brunner has written a treatise that can serve as an introduction for students, a guide for users, and a comprehensive resource for experts.

An introductory book that provides theoretical, practical, and application coverage of the emerging field of type-2 fuzzy logic control Until recently, little was known about type-2 fuzzy controllers due to the lack of basic calculation methods available for type-2 fuzzy sets and logic—and many different aspects of type-2 fuzzy control still needed to be investigated in order to advance this new and powerful technology. This self-contained reference covers everything readers need to know about the growing field. Written with an educational focus in mind, Introduction to Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Control: Theory and Applications uses a coherent structure and uniform mathematical notations to link chapters that are closely related, reflecting the book’s central themes: analysis and design of type-2 fuzzy control systems. The book includes worked examples, experiment and simulation results, and comprehensive reference materials. The book also offers downloadable computer programs from an associated website. Presented by world-class leaders in type-2 fuzzy logic control, Introduction to Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Control: Is useful for any technical person interested in learning type-2 fuzzy control theory and its applications Offers experiment and simulation results via downloadable computer programs Features type-2 fuzzy logic background chapters to make the book self-contained Provides an extensive literature survey on both fuzzy logic and related type-2 fuzzy control Introduction to Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Control is an easy-to-read reference book suitable for engineers, researchers, and graduate students who want to gain deep insight into type-2 fuzzy logic control.

Foundations of Fuzzy Control: A Practical Approach, 2nd Edition has been significantly revised and updated, with two new chapters on Gain Scheduling Control and Neurofuzzy Modelling. It focuses on the PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) type controller which is the most widely used in industry and systematically analyses several fuzzy PID control systems and adaptive control mechanisms. This new edition covers the basics of fuzzy control and builds a solid foundation for the design of fuzzy controllers, by creating links to established linear and nonlinear control theory. Advanced topics are also introduced and in particular, common sense geometry is emphasised. Key features Sets out practical worked through problems, examples and case studies to illustrate each type of control system Accompanied by a website hosting downloadable MATLAB programs Accompanied by an online course on Fuzzy Control which is taught by the author. Students can access further material and enrol at the companion website Foundations of Fuzzy Control: A Practical Approach, 2nd Edition is an invaluable resource for researchers, practitioners, and students in engineering. It is especially relevant for engineers working with automatic control of mechanical, electrical, or chemical systems.

Provides a unique and methodologically consistent treatment of various areas of fuzzy modeling and includes the results of mathematical fuzzy logic and linguistics This book is the result of almost thirty years of research on fuzzy modeling. It provides a unique view of both the theory and various types of applications. The book is divided into two parts. The first part contains an extensive presentation of the theory of fuzzy modeling. The second part presents selected applications in three important areas: control and decision-making, image processing, and time series analysis and forecasting. The authors address the consistent and appropriate treatment of the notions of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic and their applications. They provide two complementary views of the methodology, which is based on fuzzy IF-THEN rules. The first, more traditional method involves fuzzy approximation and the theory of fuzzy relations. The second method is based on a combination of formal fuzzy logic and linguistics. A very important topic covered for the first time in book form is the fuzzy transform (F-transform). Applications of this theory are described in separate chapters and include image processing and time series analysis and forecasting. All of the mentioned components make this book of interest to students and researchers of fuzzy modeling as well as to practitioners in industry. Features: Provides a foundation of fuzzy modeling and proposes a thorough description of fuzzy modeling methodology Emphasizes fuzzy modeling based on results in linguistics and formal logic Includes chapters on natural language and approximate reasoning, fuzzy control and fuzzy decision-making, and image processing using the F-transform Discusses fuzzy IF-THEN rules for approximating functions, fuzzy cluster analysis, and time series forecasting Insight into Fuzzy Modeling is a reference for researchers in the fields of soft computing and fuzzy logic as well as undergraduate, master and Ph.D. students. Vilém Novák, D.Sc. is Full Professor and Director of the Institute for Research and Applications of Fuzzy Modeling, University of Ostrava, Czech Republic. Irina Perfilieva, Ph.D. is Full Professor, Senior Scientist, and Head of the Department of Theoretical Research at the Institute for Research and Applications of Fuzzy Modeling, University of Ostrava, Czech Republic. Antonín Dvorák, Ph.D. is Associate Professor, and Senior Scientist at the Institute for Research and Applications of Fuzzy Modeling, University of Ostrava, Czech Republic.

Uniquely provides fully solved problems for linear partial differential equations and boundary value problems Partial Differential Equations: Theory and Completely Solved Problems utilizes real-world physical models alongside essential theoretical concepts. With extensive examples, the book guides readers through the use of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) for successfully solving and modeling phenomena in engineering, biology, and the applied sciences. The book focuses exclusively on linear PDEs and how they can be solved using the separation of variables technique. The authors begin by describing functions and their partial derivatives while also defining the concepts of elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic PDEs. Following an introduction to basic theory, subsequent chapters explore key topics including: • Classification of second-order linear PDEs • Derivation of heat, wave, and Laplace’s equations • Fourier series • Separation of variables • Sturm-Liouville theory • Fourier transforms Each chapter concludes with summaries that outline key concepts. Readers are provided the opportunity to test their comprehension of the presented material through numerous problems, ranked by their level of complexity, and a related website features supplemental data and resources. Extensively class-tested to ensure an accessible presentation, Partial Differential Equations is an excellent book for engineering, mathematics, and applied science courses on the topic at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels.

Provides an in-depth and even treatment of the three pillars of computational intelligence and how they relate to one another This book covers the three fundamental topics that form the basis of computational intelligence: neural networks, fuzzy systems, and evolutionary computation. The text focuses on inspiration, design, theory, and practical aspects of implementing procedures to solve real-world problems. While other books in the three fields that comprise computational intelligence are written by specialists in one discipline, this book is co-written by current former Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, a former Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, and the founding Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation. The coverage across the three topics is both uniform and consistent in style and notation. Discusses single-layer and multilayer neural networks, radial-basis function networks, and recurrent neural networks Covers fuzzy set theory, fuzzy relations, fuzzy logic interference, fuzzy clustering and classification, fuzzy measures and fuzzy integrals Examines evolutionary optimization, evolutionary learning and problem solving, and collective intelligence Includes end-of-chapter practice problems that will help readers apply methods and techniques to real-world problems Fundamentals of Computational intelligence is written for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and practitioners in electrical and computer engineering, computer science, and other engineering disciplines.

Features a balance between theory, proofs, and examples and provides applications across diverse fields of study Ordinary Differential Equations presents a thorough discussion of first-order differential equations and progresses to equations of higher order. The book transitions smoothly from first-order to higher-order equations, allowing readers to develop a complete understanding of the related theory. Featuring diverse and interesting applications from engineering, bioengineering, ecology, and biology, the book anticipates potential difficulties in understanding the various solution steps and provides all the necessary details. Topical coverage includes: First-Order Differential Equations Higher-Order Linear Equations Applications of Higher-Order Linear Equations Systems of Linear Differential Equations Laplace Transform Series Solutions Systems of Nonlinear Differential Equations In addition to plentiful exercises and examples throughout, each chapter concludes with a summary that outlines key concepts and techniques. The book's design allows readers to interact with the content, while hints, cautions, and emphasis are uniquely featured in the margins to further help and engage readers. Written in an accessible style that includes all needed details and steps, Ordinary Differential Equations is an excellent book for courses on the topic at the upper-undergraduate level. The book also serves as a valuable resource for professionals in the fields of engineering, physics, and mathematics who utilize differential equations in their everyday work. An Instructors Manual is available upon request. Email sfriedman@wiley.com for information. There is also a Solutions Manual available. The ISBN is 9781118398999.

The monitoring and control of a system whose behaviour is highly uncertain is an important and challenging practical problem. Methods of solution based on fuzzy techniques have generated considerable interest, but very little of the existing literature considers explicit ways of taking uncertainties into account. This book describes an approach to the monitoring and control of information-poor systems that is based on fuzzy relational models which generate fuzzy outputs. The first part of Monitoring and Control of Information-Poor Systems aims to clarify why design decisions must take account of the uncertainty associated with optimal choices, and to explain how a fuzzy relational model can be used to generate a fuzzy output, which reflects the uncertainties associated with its predictions. Part two gives a brief introduction to fuzzy decision-making and shows how it can be used to design a predictive control scheme that is suitable for controlling information-poor systems using inaccurate measurements. Part three describes different ways in which fuzzy relational models can be generated online and explains the practical issues associated with their identification and application. The final part of the book provides examples of the use of the previously described techniques in real applications. Key features: Describes techniques applicable to a wide range of engineering, environmental, medical, financial and economic applications Uses simple examples to help explain the basic techniques for dealing with uncertainty Describes a novel design approach based on the use of fuzzy relational models Considers practical issues associated with applying the techniques to real systems Monitoring and Control of Information-Poor Systems forms an invaluable resource for a wide range of graduate students, and is also a comprehensive reference for researchers and practitioners working on problems involving mathematical modelling and control.

Statistical data are not always precise numbers, or vectors, or categories. Real data are frequently what is called fuzzy. Examples where this fuzziness is obvious are quality of life data, environmental, biological, medical, sociological and economics data. Also the results of measurements can be best described by using fuzzy numbers and fuzzy vectors respectively. Statistical analysis methods have to be adapted for the analysis of fuzzy data. In this book, the foundations of the description of fuzzy data are explained, including methods on how to obtain the characterizing function of fuzzy measurement results. Furthermore, statistical methods are then generalized to the analysis of fuzzy data and fuzzy a-priori information. Key Features: Provides basic methods for the mathematical description of fuzzy data, as well as statistical methods that can be used to analyze fuzzy data. Describes methods of increasing importance with applications in areas such as environmental statistics and social science. Complements the theory with exercises and solutions and is illustrated throughout with diagrams and examples. Explores areas such quantitative description of data uncertainty and mathematical description of fuzzy data. This work is aimed at statisticians working with fuzzy logic, engineering statisticians, finance researchers, and environmental statisticians. It is written for readers who are familiar with elementary stochastic models and basic statistical methods.

Learn to: Solve linear algebra equations in several ways Put data in order with matrices Determine values with determinants Work with eigenvalues and eigenvectors Your hands-on guide to real-world applications of linear algebra Does linear algebra leave you feeling lost? No worries —this easy-to-follow guide explains the how and the why of solving linear algebra problems in plain English. From matrices to vector spaces to linear transformations, you'll understand the key concepts and see how they relate to everything from genetics to nutrition to spotted owl extinction. Line up the basics – discover several different approaches to organizing numbers and equations, and solve systems of equations algebraically or with matrices Relate vectors and linear transformations – link vectors and matrices with linear combinations and seek solutions of homogeneous systems Evaluate determinants – see how to perform the determinant function on different sizes of matrices and take advantage of Cramer's rule Hone your skills with vector spaces – determine the properties of vector spaces and their subspaces and see linear transformation in action Tackle eigenvalues and eigenvectors – define and solve for eigenvalues and eigenvectors and understand how they interact with specific matrices Open the book and find: Theoretical and practical ways of solving linear algebra problems Definitions of terms throughout and in the glossary New ways of looking at operations How linear algebra ties together vectors, matrices, determinants, and linear transformations Ten common mathematical representations of Greek letters Real-world applications of matrices and determinants

An introductory textbook covering the fundamentals of linear finite element analysis (FEA) This book constitutes the first volume in a two-volume set that introduces readers to the theoretical foundations and the implementation of the finite element method (FEM). The first volume focuses on the use of the method for linear problems. A general procedure is presented for the finite element analysis (FEA) of a physical problem, where the goal is to specify the values of a field function. First, the strong form of the problem (governing differential equations and boundary conditions) is formulated. Subsequently, a weak form of the governing equations is established. Finally, a finite element approximation is introduced, transforming the weak form into a system of equations where the only unknowns are nodal values of the field function. The procedure is applied to one-dimensional elasticity and heat conduction, multi-dimensional steady-state scalar field problems (heat conduction, chemical diffusion, flow in porous media), multi-dimensional elasticity and structural mechanics (beams/shells), as well as time-dependent (dynamic) scalar field problems, elastodynamics and structural dynamics. Important concepts for finite element computations, such as isoparametric elements for multi-dimensional analysis and Gaussian quadrature for numerical evaluation of integrals, are presented and explained. Practical aspects of FEA and advanced topics, such as reduced integration procedures, mixed finite elements and verification and validation of the FEM are also discussed. Provides detailed derivations of finite element equations for a variety of problems. Incorporates quantitative examples on one-dimensional and multi-dimensional FEA. Provides an overview of multi-dimensional linear elasticity (definition of stress and strain tensors, coordinate transformation rules, stress-strain relation and material symmetry) before presenting the pertinent FEA procedures. Discusses practical and advanced aspects of FEA, such as treatment of constraints, locking, reduced integration, hourglass control, and multi-field (mixed) formulations. Includes chapters on transient (step-by-step) solution schemes for time-dependent scalar field problems and elastodynamics/structural dynamics. Contains a chapter dedicated to verification and validation for the FEM and another chapter dedicated to solution of linear systems of equations and to introductory notions of parallel computing. Includes appendices with a review of matrix algebra and overview of matrix analysis of discrete systems. Accompanied by a website hosting an open-source finite element program for linear elasticity and heat conduction, together with a user tutorial. Fundamentals of Finite Element Analysis: Linear Finite Element Analysis is an ideal text for undergraduate and graduate students in civil, aerospace and mechanical engineering, finite element software vendors, as well as practicing engineers and anybody with an interest in linear finite element analysis.

Computational Intelligence: Synergies of Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks and Evolutionary Computing presents an introduction to some of the cutting edge technological paradigms under the umbrella of computational intelligence. Computational intelligence schemes are investigated with the development of a suitable framework for fuzzy logic, neural networks and evolutionary computing, neuro-fuzzy systems, evolutionary-fuzzy systems and evolutionary neural systems. Applications to linear and non-linear systems are discussed with examples. Key features: Covers all the aspects of fuzzy, neural and evolutionary approaches with worked out examples, MATLAB® exercises and applications in each chapter Presents the synergies of technologies of computational intelligence such as evolutionary fuzzy neural fuzzy and evolutionary neural systems Considers real world problems in the domain of systems modelling, control and optimization Contains a foreword written by Lotfi Zadeh Computational Intelligence: Synergies of Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks and Evolutionary Computing is an ideal text for final year undergraduate, postgraduate and research students in electrical, control, computer, industrial and manufacturing engineering.

A Useful Guide to the Interrelated Areas of Differential Equations, Difference Equations, and Queueing Models Difference and Differential Equations with Applications in Queueing Theory presents the unique connections between the methods and applications of differential equations, difference equations, and Markovian queues. Featuring a comprehensive collection of topics that are used in stochastic processes, particularly in queueing theory, the book thoroughly discusses the relationship to systems of linear differential difference equations. The book demonstrates the applicability that queueing theory has in a variety of fields including telecommunications, traffic engineering, computing, and the design of factories, shops, offices, and hospitals. Along with the needed prerequisite fundamentals in probability, statistics, and Laplace transform, Difference and Differential Equations with Applications in Queueing Theory provides: A discussion on splitting, delayed-service, and delayed feedback for single-server, multiple-server, parallel, and series queue models Applications in queue models whose solutions require differential difference equations and generating function methods Exercises at the end of each chapter along with select answers The book is an excellent resource for researchers and practitioners in applied mathematics, operations research, engineering, and industrial engineering, as well as a useful text for upper-undergraduate and graduate-level courses in applied mathematics, differential and difference equations, queueing theory, probability, and stochastic processes.

A balanced guide to the essential techniques for solving elliptic partial differential equations Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations provides a comprehensive, self-contained treatment of the quantitative methods used to solve elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs), with a focus on the efficiency as well as the error of the presented methods. The author utilizes coverage of theoretical PDEs, along with the nu merical solution of linear systems and various examples and exercises, to supply readers with an introduction to the essential concepts in the numerical analysis of PDEs. The book presents the three main discretization methods of elliptic PDEs: finite difference, finite elements, and spectral methods. Each topic has its own devoted chapters and is discussed alongside additional key topics, including: The mathematical theory of elliptic PDEs Numerical linear algebra Time-dependent PDEs Multigrid and domain decomposition PDEs posed on infinite domains The book concludes with a discussion of the methods for nonlinear problems, such as Newton's method, and addresses the importance of hands-on work to facilitate learning. Each chapter concludes with a set of exercises, including theoretical and programming problems, that allows readers to test their understanding of the presented theories and techniques. In addition, the book discusses important nonlinear problems in many fields of science and engineering, providing information as to how they can serve as computing projects across various disciplines. Requiring only a preliminary understanding of analysis, Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations is suitable for courses on numerical PDEs at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. The book is also appropriate for students majoring in the mathematical sciences and engineering.

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## Snehashish Chakraverty Fuzzy Arbitrary Order System. Fuzzy Fractional Differential Equations and Applications

Presents a systematic treatment of fuzzy fractional differential equations as well as newly developed computational methods to model uncertain physical problems Complete with comprehensive results and solutions, Fuzzy Arbitrary Order System: Fuzzy Fractional Differential Equations and Applications details newly developed methods of fuzzy computational techniquesneeded to model solve uncertainty. Fuzzy differential equations are solved via various analytical andnumerical methodologies, and this book presents their importance for problem solving, prototypeengineering design, and systems testing in uncertain environments. In recent years, modeling of differential equations for arbitrary and fractional order systems has been increasing in its applicability, and as such, the authors feature examples from a variety of disciplines to illustrate the practicality and importance of the methods within physics, applied mathematics, engineering, and chemistry, to name a few. The fundamentals of fractional differential equations and the basic preliminaries of fuzzy fractional differential equations are first introduced, followed by numerical solutions, comparisons of various methods, and simulated results. In addition, fuzzy ordinary, partial, linear, and nonlinear fractional differential equations are addressed to solve uncertainty in physical systems. In addition, this book features: Basic preliminaries of fuzzy set theory, an introduction of fuzzy arbitrary order differential equations, and various analytical and numerical procedures for solving associated problems Coverage on a variety of fuzzy fractional differential equations including structural, diffusion, and chemical problems as well as heat equations and biomathematical applications Discussions on how to model physical problems in terms of nonprobabilistic methods and provides systematic coverage of fuzzy fractional differential equations and its applications Uncertainties in systems and processes with a fuzzy concept Fuzzy Arbitrary Order System: Fuzzy Fractional Differential Equations and Applications is an ideal resource for practitioners, researchers, and academicians in applied mathematics, physics, biology, engineering, computer science, and chemistry who need to model uncertain physical phenomena and problems. The book is appropriate for graduate-level courses on fractional differential equations for students majoring in applied mathematics, engineering, physics, and computer science.

## Collocation Methods for Volterra Integral and Related Functional Differential Equations

Collocation based on piecewise polynomial approximation represents a powerful class of methods for the numerical solution of initial-value problems for functional differential and integral equations arising in a wide spectrum of applications, including biological and physical phenomena. The present book introduces the reader to the general principles underlying these methods and then describes in detail their convergence properties when applied to ordinary differential equations, functional equations with (Volterra type) memory terms, delay equations, and differential-algebraic and integral-algebraic equations. Each chapter starts with a self-contained introduction to the relevant theory of the class of equations under consideration. Numerous exercises and examples are supplied, along with extensive historical and bibliographical notes utilising the vast annotated reference list of over 1300 items. In sum, Hermann Brunner has written a treatise that can serve as an introduction for students, a guide for users, and a comprehensive resource for experts.

## Jerry Mendel Introduction To Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Control. Theory and Applications

An introductory book that provides theoretical, practical, and application coverage of the emerging field of type-2 fuzzy logic control Until recently, little was known about type-2 fuzzy controllers due to the lack of basic calculation methods available for type-2 fuzzy sets and logic—and many different aspects of type-2 fuzzy control still needed to be investigated in order to advance this new and powerful technology. This self-contained reference covers everything readers need to know about the growing field. Written with an educational focus in mind, Introduction to Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Control: Theory and Applications uses a coherent structure and uniform mathematical notations to link chapters that are closely related, reflecting the book’s central themes: analysis and design of type-2 fuzzy control systems. The book includes worked examples, experiment and simulation results, and comprehensive reference materials. The book also offers downloadable computer programs from an associated website. Presented by world-class leaders in type-2 fuzzy logic control, Introduction to Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Control: Is useful for any technical person interested in learning type-2 fuzzy control theory and its applications Offers experiment and simulation results via downloadable computer programs Features type-2 fuzzy logic background chapters to make the book self-contained Provides an extensive literature survey on both fuzzy logic and related type-2 fuzzy control Introduction to Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Control is an easy-to-read reference book suitable for engineers, researchers, and graduate students who want to gain deep insight into type-2 fuzzy logic control.

## Jan Jantzen Foundations of Fuzzy Control. A Practical Approach

Foundations of Fuzzy Control: A Practical Approach, 2nd Edition has been significantly revised and updated, with two new chapters on Gain Scheduling Control and Neurofuzzy Modelling. It focuses on the PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) type controller which is the most widely used in industry and systematically analyses several fuzzy PID control systems and adaptive control mechanisms. This new edition covers the basics of fuzzy control and builds a solid foundation for the design of fuzzy controllers, by creating links to established linear and nonlinear control theory. Advanced topics are also introduced and in particular, common sense geometry is emphasised. Key features Sets out practical worked through problems, examples and case studies to illustrate each type of control system Accompanied by a website hosting downloadable MATLAB programs Accompanied by an online course on Fuzzy Control which is taught by the author. Students can access further material and enrol at the companion website Foundations of Fuzzy Control: A Practical Approach, 2nd Edition is an invaluable resource for researchers, practitioners, and students in engineering. It is especially relevant for engineers working with automatic control of mechanical, electrical, or chemical systems.

## Antonin Dvorak Insight into Fuzzy Modeling

Provides a unique and methodologically consistent treatment of various areas of fuzzy modeling and includes the results of mathematical fuzzy logic and linguistics This book is the result of almost thirty years of research on fuzzy modeling. It provides a unique view of both the theory and various types of applications. The book is divided into two parts. The first part contains an extensive presentation of the theory of fuzzy modeling. The second part presents selected applications in three important areas: control and decision-making, image processing, and time series analysis and forecasting. The authors address the consistent and appropriate treatment of the notions of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic and their applications. They provide two complementary views of the methodology, which is based on fuzzy IF-THEN rules. The first, more traditional method involves fuzzy approximation and the theory of fuzzy relations. The second method is based on a combination of formal fuzzy logic and linguistics. A very important topic covered for the first time in book form is the fuzzy transform (F-transform). Applications of this theory are described in separate chapters and include image processing and time series analysis and forecasting. All of the mentioned components make this book of interest to students and researchers of fuzzy modeling as well as to practitioners in industry. Features: Provides a foundation of fuzzy modeling and proposes a thorough description of fuzzy modeling methodology Emphasizes fuzzy modeling based on results in linguistics and formal logic Includes chapters on natural language and approximate reasoning, fuzzy control and fuzzy decision-making, and image processing using the F-transform Discusses fuzzy IF-THEN rules for approximating functions, fuzzy cluster analysis, and time series forecasting Insight into Fuzzy Modeling is a reference for researchers in the fields of soft computing and fuzzy logic as well as undergraduate, master and Ph.D. students. Vilém Novák, D.Sc. is Full Professor and Director of the Institute for Research and Applications of Fuzzy Modeling, University of Ostrava, Czech Republic. Irina Perfilieva, Ph.D. is Full Professor, Senior Scientist, and Head of the Department of Theoretical Research at the Institute for Research and Applications of Fuzzy Modeling, University of Ostrava, Czech Republic. Antonín Dvorák, Ph.D. is Associate Professor, and Senior Scientist at the Institute for Research and Applications of Fuzzy Modeling, University of Ostrava, Czech Republic.

## Thomas Hillen Partial Differential Equations. Theory and Completely Solved Problems

Uniquely provides fully solved problems for linear partial differential equations and boundary value problems Partial Differential Equations: Theory and Completely Solved Problems utilizes real-world physical models alongside essential theoretical concepts. With extensive examples, the book guides readers through the use of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) for successfully solving and modeling phenomena in engineering, biology, and the applied sciences. The book focuses exclusively on linear PDEs and how they can be solved using the separation of variables technique. The authors begin by describing functions and their partial derivatives while also defining the concepts of elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic PDEs. Following an introduction to basic theory, subsequent chapters explore key topics including: • Classification of second-order linear PDEs • Derivation of heat, wave, and Laplace’s equations • Fourier series • Separation of variables • Sturm-Liouville theory • Fourier transforms Each chapter concludes with summaries that outline key concepts. Readers are provided the opportunity to test their comprehension of the presented material through numerous problems, ranked by their level of complexity, and a related website features supplemental data and resources. Extensively class-tested to ensure an accessible presentation, Partial Differential Equations is an excellent book for engineering, mathematics, and applied science courses on the topic at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels.

## Derong Liu Fundamentals of Computational Intelligence. Neural Networks, Fuzzy Systems, and Evolutionary Computation

Provides an in-depth and even treatment of the three pillars of computational intelligence and how they relate to one another This book covers the three fundamental topics that form the basis of computational intelligence: neural networks, fuzzy systems, and evolutionary computation. The text focuses on inspiration, design, theory, and practical aspects of implementing procedures to solve real-world problems. While other books in the three fields that comprise computational intelligence are written by specialists in one discipline, this book is co-written by current former Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, a former Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, and the founding Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation. The coverage across the three topics is both uniform and consistent in style and notation. Discusses single-layer and multilayer neural networks, radial-basis function networks, and recurrent neural networks Covers fuzzy set theory, fuzzy relations, fuzzy logic interference, fuzzy clustering and classification, fuzzy measures and fuzzy integrals Examines evolutionary optimization, evolutionary learning and problem solving, and collective intelligence Includes end-of-chapter practice problems that will help readers apply methods and techniques to real-world problems Fundamentals of Computational intelligence is written for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and practitioners in electrical and computer engineering, computer science, and other engineering disciplines.

## Michael Greenberg D. Ordinary Differential Equations

Features a balance between theory, proofs, and examples and provides applications across diverse fields of study Ordinary Differential Equations presents a thorough discussion of first-order differential equations and progresses to equations of higher order. The book transitions smoothly from first-order to higher-order equations, allowing readers to develop a complete understanding of the related theory. Featuring diverse and interesting applications from engineering, bioengineering, ecology, and biology, the book anticipates potential difficulties in understanding the various solution steps and provides all the necessary details. Topical coverage includes: First-Order Differential Equations Higher-Order Linear Equations Applications of Higher-Order Linear Equations Systems of Linear Differential Equations Laplace Transform Series Solutions Systems of Nonlinear Differential Equations In addition to plentiful exercises and examples throughout, each chapter concludes with a summary that outlines key concepts and techniques. The book's design allows readers to interact with the content, while hints, cautions, and emphasis are uniquely featured in the margins to further help and engage readers. Written in an accessible style that includes all needed details and steps, Ordinary Differential Equations is an excellent book for courses on the topic at the upper-undergraduate level. The book also serves as a valuable resource for professionals in the fields of engineering, physics, and mathematics who utilize differential equations in their everyday work. An Instructors Manual is available upon request. Email sfriedman@wiley.com for information. There is also a Solutions Manual available. The ISBN is 9781118398999.

## Arthur Dexter L. Monitoring and Control of Information-Poor Systems. An Approach based on Fuzzy Relational Models

The monitoring and control of a system whose behaviour is highly uncertain is an important and challenging practical problem. Methods of solution based on fuzzy techniques have generated considerable interest, but very little of the existing literature considers explicit ways of taking uncertainties into account. This book describes an approach to the monitoring and control of information-poor systems that is based on fuzzy relational models which generate fuzzy outputs. The first part of Monitoring and Control of Information-Poor Systems aims to clarify why design decisions must take account of the uncertainty associated with optimal choices, and to explain how a fuzzy relational model can be used to generate a fuzzy output, which reflects the uncertainties associated with its predictions. Part two gives a brief introduction to fuzzy decision-making and shows how it can be used to design a predictive control scheme that is suitable for controlling information-poor systems using inaccurate measurements. Part three describes different ways in which fuzzy relational models can be generated online and explains the practical issues associated with their identification and application. The final part of the book provides examples of the use of the previously described techniques in real applications. Key features: Describes techniques applicable to a wide range of engineering, environmental, medical, financial and economic applications Uses simple examples to help explain the basic techniques for dealing with uncertainty Describes a novel design approach based on the use of fuzzy relational models Considers practical issues associated with applying the techniques to real systems Monitoring and Control of Information-Poor Systems forms an invaluable resource for a wide range of graduate students, and is also a comprehensive reference for researchers and practitioners working on problems involving mathematical modelling and control.

## Reinhard Viertl Statistical Methods for Fuzzy Data

Statistical data are not always precise numbers, or vectors, or categories. Real data are frequently what is called fuzzy. Examples where this fuzziness is obvious are quality of life data, environmental, biological, medical, sociological and economics data. Also the results of measurements can be best described by using fuzzy numbers and fuzzy vectors respectively. Statistical analysis methods have to be adapted for the analysis of fuzzy data. In this book, the foundations of the description of fuzzy data are explained, including methods on how to obtain the characterizing function of fuzzy measurement results. Furthermore, statistical methods are then generalized to the analysis of fuzzy data and fuzzy a-priori information. Key Features: Provides basic methods for the mathematical description of fuzzy data, as well as statistical methods that can be used to analyze fuzzy data. Describes methods of increasing importance with applications in areas such as environmental statistics and social science. Complements the theory with exercises and solutions and is illustrated throughout with diagrams and examples. Explores areas such quantitative description of data uncertainty and mathematical description of fuzzy data. This work is aimed at statisticians working with fuzzy logic, engineering statisticians, finance researchers, and environmental statisticians. It is written for readers who are familiar with elementary stochastic models and basic statistical methods.

## Mary Sterling Jane Linear Algebra For Dummies

Learn to: Solve linear algebra equations in several ways Put data in order with matrices Determine values with determinants Work with eigenvalues and eigenvectors Your hands-on guide to real-world applications of linear algebra Does linear algebra leave you feeling lost? No worries —this easy-to-follow guide explains the how and the why of solving linear algebra problems in plain English. From matrices to vector spaces to linear transformations, you'll understand the key concepts and see how they relate to everything from genetics to nutrition to spotted owl extinction. Line up the basics – discover several different approaches to organizing numbers and equations, and solve systems of equations algebraically or with matrices Relate vectors and linear transformations – link vectors and matrices with linear combinations and seek solutions of homogeneous systems Evaluate determinants – see how to perform the determinant function on different sizes of matrices and take advantage of Cramer's rule Hone your skills with vector spaces – determine the properties of vector spaces and their subspaces and see linear transformation in action Tackle eigenvalues and eigenvectors – define and solve for eigenvalues and eigenvectors and understand how they interact with specific matrices Open the book and find: Theoretical and practical ways of solving linear algebra problems Definitions of terms throughout and in the glossary New ways of looking at operations How linear algebra ties together vectors, matrices, determinants, and linear transformations Ten common mathematical representations of Greek letters Real-world applications of matrices and determinants

## Ioannis Koutromanos Fundamentals of Finite Element Analysis. Linear Finite Element Analysis

An introductory textbook covering the fundamentals of linear finite element analysis (FEA) This book constitutes the first volume in a two-volume set that introduces readers to the theoretical foundations and the implementation of the finite element method (FEM). The first volume focuses on the use of the method for linear problems. A general procedure is presented for the finite element analysis (FEA) of a physical problem, where the goal is to specify the values of a field function. First, the strong form of the problem (governing differential equations and boundary conditions) is formulated. Subsequently, a weak form of the governing equations is established. Finally, a finite element approximation is introduced, transforming the weak form into a system of equations where the only unknowns are nodal values of the field function. The procedure is applied to one-dimensional elasticity and heat conduction, multi-dimensional steady-state scalar field problems (heat conduction, chemical diffusion, flow in porous media), multi-dimensional elasticity and structural mechanics (beams/shells), as well as time-dependent (dynamic) scalar field problems, elastodynamics and structural dynamics. Important concepts for finite element computations, such as isoparametric elements for multi-dimensional analysis and Gaussian quadrature for numerical evaluation of integrals, are presented and explained. Practical aspects of FEA and advanced topics, such as reduced integration procedures, mixed finite elements and verification and validation of the FEM are also discussed. Provides detailed derivations of finite element equations for a variety of problems. Incorporates quantitative examples on one-dimensional and multi-dimensional FEA. Provides an overview of multi-dimensional linear elasticity (definition of stress and strain tensors, coordinate transformation rules, stress-strain relation and material symmetry) before presenting the pertinent FEA procedures. Discusses practical and advanced aspects of FEA, such as treatment of constraints, locking, reduced integration, hourglass control, and multi-field (mixed) formulations. Includes chapters on transient (step-by-step) solution schemes for time-dependent scalar field problems and elastodynamics/structural dynamics. Contains a chapter dedicated to verification and validation for the FEM and another chapter dedicated to solution of linear systems of equations and to introductory notions of parallel computing. Includes appendices with a review of matrix algebra and overview of matrix analysis of discrete systems. Accompanied by a website hosting an open-source finite element program for linear elasticity and heat conduction, together with a user tutorial. Fundamentals of Finite Element Analysis: Linear Finite Element Analysis is an ideal text for undergraduate and graduate students in civil, aerospace and mechanical engineering, finite element software vendors, as well as practicing engineers and anybody with an interest in linear finite element analysis.

## Hojjat Adeli Computational Intelligence. Synergies of Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks and Evolutionary Computing

Computational Intelligence: Synergies of Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks and Evolutionary Computing presents an introduction to some of the cutting edge technological paradigms under the umbrella of computational intelligence. Computational intelligence schemes are investigated with the development of a suitable framework for fuzzy logic, neural networks and evolutionary computing, neuro-fuzzy systems, evolutionary-fuzzy systems and evolutionary neural systems. Applications to linear and non-linear systems are discussed with examples. Key features: Covers all the aspects of fuzzy, neural and evolutionary approaches with worked out examples, MATLAB® exercises and applications in each chapter Presents the synergies of technologies of computational intelligence such as evolutionary fuzzy neural fuzzy and evolutionary neural systems Considers real world problems in the domain of systems modelling, control and optimization Contains a foreword written by Lotfi Zadeh Computational Intelligence: Synergies of Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks and Evolutionary Computing is an ideal text for final year undergraduate, postgraduate and research students in electrical, control, computer, industrial and manufacturing engineering.

## Aliakbar Haghighi Montazer Difference and Differential Equations with Applications in Queueing Theory

A Useful Guide to the Interrelated Areas of Differential Equations, Difference Equations, and Queueing Models Difference and Differential Equations with Applications in Queueing Theory presents the unique connections between the methods and applications of differential equations, difference equations, and Markovian queues. Featuring a comprehensive collection of topics that are used in stochastic processes, particularly in queueing theory, the book thoroughly discusses the relationship to systems of linear differential difference equations. The book demonstrates the applicability that queueing theory has in a variety of fields including telecommunications, traffic engineering, computing, and the design of factories, shops, offices, and hospitals. Along with the needed prerequisite fundamentals in probability, statistics, and Laplace transform, Difference and Differential Equations with Applications in Queueing Theory provides: A discussion on splitting, delayed-service, and delayed feedback for single-server, multiple-server, parallel, and series queue models Applications in queue models whose solutions require differential difference equations and generating function methods Exercises at the end of each chapter along with select answers The book is an excellent resource for researchers and practitioners in applied mathematics, operations research, engineering, and industrial engineering, as well as a useful text for upper-undergraduate and graduate-level courses in applied mathematics, differential and difference equations, queueing theory, probability, and stochastic processes.

## S. Lui H Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations

A balanced guide to the essential techniques for solving elliptic partial differential equations Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations provides a comprehensive, self-contained treatment of the quantitative methods used to solve elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs), with a focus on the efficiency as well as the error of the presented methods. The author utilizes coverage of theoretical PDEs, along with the nu merical solution of linear systems and various examples and exercises, to supply readers with an introduction to the essential concepts in the numerical analysis of PDEs. The book presents the three main discretization methods of elliptic PDEs: finite difference, finite elements, and spectral methods. Each topic has its own devoted chapters and is discussed alongside additional key topics, including: The mathematical theory of elliptic PDEs Numerical linear algebra Time-dependent PDEs Multigrid and domain decomposition PDEs posed on infinite domains The book concludes with a discussion of the methods for nonlinear problems, such as Newton's method, and addresses the importance of hands-on work to facilitate learning. Each chapter concludes with a set of exercises, including theoretical and programming problems, that allows readers to test their understanding of the presented theories and techniques. In addition, the book discusses important nonlinear problems in many fields of science and engineering, providing information as to how they can serve as computing projects across various disciplines. Requiring only a preliminary understanding of analysis, Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations is suitable for courses on numerical PDEs at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. The book is also appropriate for students majoring in the mathematical sciences and engineering.