Gene duplication has long been believed to have played a major role in the rise of biological novelty through evolution of new function and gene expression patterns. The first book to examine gene duplication across all levels of biological organization, Evolution after Gene Duplication presents a comprehensive picture of the mechanistic process by which gene duplication may have played a role in generating biodiversity. Key Features: Explores comparative genomics, genome evolution studies and analysis of multi-gene families such as Hox, globins, olfactory receptors and MHC (immune system) A complete post-genome treatment of the topic originally covered by Ohno's 1970 classic, this volume extends coverage to include the fate of associated regulatory pathways Taps the significant increase in multi-gene family data that has resulted from comparative genomics Comprehensive coverage that includes opposing theoretical viewpoints, comparative genomics data, theoretical and empirical evidence and the role of bioinformatics in the study of gene duplication This up-to-date overview of theory and mathematical models along with practical examples is suitable for scientists across various levels of biology as well as instructors and graduate students.
A comprehensive look at empirical approaches to molecular discovery, their relationships with rational design, and the future of both Empirical methods of discovery, along with serendipitous and rational design approaches, have played an important role in human history. Searching for Molecular Solutions compares empirical discovery strategies for biologically useful molecules with serendipitous discovery and rational design, while also considering the strengths and limitations of empirical pathways to molecular discovery. Logically arranged, this text examines the different modes of molecular discovery, empha-sizing the historical and ongoing importance of empirical strategies. Along with a broad overview of the subject matter, Searching for Molecular Solutions explores: The differing modes of molecular discovery Biological precedents for evolutionary approaches Directed evolutionary methods and related areas Enzyme evolution and design Functional nucleic acid discovery Antibodies and other recognition molecules General aspects of molecular recognition Small molecule discovery approaches Rational molecular design The interplay between empirical and rational strategies and their ongoing roles in the future of molecular discovery Searching for Molecular Solutions covers several major areas of modern research, development, and practical applications of molecular sciences. This text offers empirical-rational principles of broad relevance to scientists, professionals, and students interested in general aspectsof molecular discovery, as well as the thought processes behind experimental approaches. Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.
Epigenetics is a term in biology referring to heritable traits that do not involve changes in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism. Epigenetic traits exist on top of or in addition to the traditional molecular basis for inheritance. The «epigenome» is a parallel to the word «genome,» and refers to the overall epigenetic state of a cell. Cancer and stem cell research have gradually focused attention on these genome modifications. The molecular basis of epigenetics involves modifications to DNA and the chromatin proteins that associate with it. Methylation, for example, can silence a nearby gene and seems to be involved in some cancers. Epigenetics is beginning to form and take shape as a new scientific discipline, which will have a major impact on Medicine and essentially all fields of biology. Increasingly, researchers are unearthing links between epigenetics and a number of diseases. Although in recent years cancer has been the main focus of epigenetics, recent data suggests that epigenetic plays a critical role in psychology and psychopathology. It is being realized that normal behaviors such as maternal care and pathologies such as Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's might have an epigenetic basis. It is also becoming clear that nutrition and life experiences have epigenetic consequences. Discover more online content in the Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine.
Drug abuse has been, and continues to be, a global societal issue with diverse sets of impacts. Drugs of Abuse: Pharmacology and Molecular Mechanisms introduces the basic principles of pharmacology and neuroscience of drug abuse. Understanding the chemistry of commonly abused drugs and their impact on brain function will provide students and researchers with a more profound understanding of the molecular basis of drug abuse and addiction. Drugs of Abuse: Pharmacology and Molecular Mechanisms opens with a brief history of drug use and abuse. Subsequent sections look at specific families of drugs, including stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens among others, and explore how their chemical make-up interacts with brain function. The final chapter provides a brief overview of clinical substance abuse treatment. Providing a concise, accessible introductory overview of the topic, Drugs of Abuse: Pharmacology and Molecular Mechanisms will be a valuable resource for students, researchers, and others interested in how drugs interact with the brain. Introduces readers to the basic principles of neuroscience and pharmacology as related to drug use and abuse. Explores how the chemical make-up of drugs interact with the brain and can lead to addiction Includes coverage of a wide array of commonly abused families of drugs, including stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, and others. Provides an essential introduction to the chemical and molecular underpinnings of drug use and abuse
Reflecting the rapid progress in the field, the book presents the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation thereby focusing on RNA processing mechanisms in eucaryotic cells. With chapters on mechanisms as RNA splicing, RNA interference, MicroRNAs, RNA editing and others, the book also discusses the critical role of RNA processing for the pathogenesis of a wide range of human diseases. The interdisciplinary importance of the topic makes the title a useful resource for a wide reader group in science, clinics as well as pharmaceutical industry.
Molecular Markers in Plants surveys an array of technologies used in the molecular analysis of plants. The role molecular markers play in plant improvement has grown significantly as DNA sequencing and high-throughput technologies have matured. This timely review of technologies and techniques will provide readers with a useful resource on the latest molecular technologies. Molecular Markers in Plants not only reviews past achievements, but also catalogs recent advances and looks forward towards the future application of molecular technologies in plant improvement. Opening chapters look at the development of molecular technologies. Subsequent chapters look at a wide range of applications for the use of these advances in fields as diverse as plant breeding, production, biosecurity, and conservation. The final chapters look forward toward future developments in the field. Looking broadly at the field of molecular technologies, Molecular Markers in Plants will be an essential addition to the library of every researcher, institution, and company working in the field of plant improvement.
Gene Containment provides a comprehensive look at genetically modified organisms and the strategies and implementation of key methods to gene containment. The book is divided into 5 parts: An Introduction that discusses the need for biotechnology and GMOs, Section 1 looks at the need for gene containment, Part II discusses varying strategies for gene containment, section III explores the assessment of gene containment approaches, and section IV covers the steps involved in implementing gene containment. Gene Containment will provide a thorough and up to date look at gene containment research and the needs for implementing new strategies in this arena.
Winner of the PROSE Award for Chemistry & Physics 2010 Acknowledging the very best in professional and scholarly publishing, the annual PROSE Awards recognise publishers' and authors' commitment to pioneering works of research and for contributing to the conception, production, and design of landmark works in their fields. Judged by peer publishers, librarians, and medical professionals, Wiley are pleased to congratulate Professor Ian Fleming, winner of the PROSE Award in Chemistry and Physics for Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions. Molecular orbital theory is used by chemists to describe the arrangement of electrons in chemical structures. It is also a theory capable of giving some insight into the forces involved in the making and breaking of chemical bonds—the chemical reactions that are often the focus of an organic chemist's interest. Organic chemists with a serious interest in understanding and explaining their work usually express their ideas in molecular orbital terms, so much so that it is now an essential component of every organic chemist's skills to have some acquaintance with molecular orbital theory. Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions is both a simplified account of molecular orbital theory and a review of its applications in organic chemistry; it provides a basic introduction to the subject and a wealth of illustrative examples. In this book molecular orbital theory is presented in a much simplified, and entirely non-mathematical language, accessible to every organic chemist, whether student or research worker, whether mathematically competent or not. Topics covered include: Molecular Orbital Theory Molecular Orbitals and the Structures of Organic Molecules Chemical Reactions – How Far and How Fast Ionic Reactions – Reactivity Ionic Reactions – Stereochemistry Pericyclic Reactions Radical Reactions Photochemical Reactions This expanded Reference Edition of Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions takes the content and the same non-mathematical approach of the Student Edition, and adds extensive extra subject coverage, detail and over 1500 references. The additional material adds a deeper understanding of the models used, and includes a broader range of applications and case studies. Providing a complete in-depth reference for a more advanced audience, this edition will find a place on the bookshelves of researchers and advanced students of organic, physical organic and computational chemistry. The student edition of Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions presents molecular orbital theory in a simplified form, and offers an invaluable first textbook on this important subject for students of organic, physical organic and computational chemistry. Further information can be viewed here. «These books are the result of years of work, which began as an attempt to write a second edition of my 1976 book Frontier Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions. I wanted to give a rather more thorough introduction to molecular orbitals, while maintaining my focus on the organic chemist who did not want a mathematical account, but still wanted to understand organic chemistry at a physical level. I'm delighted to win this prize, and hope a new generation of chemists will benefit from these books.» -Professor Ian Fleming
The fifth edition of this highly successful book provides students with an essential introduction to the molecular genetics of bacteria covering the basic concepts and the latest developments. It is comprehensive, easy to use and well structured with clear two-colour diagrams throughout. Specific changes to the new edition include: More detail on sigma factors, anti-sigma factors and anti-anti sigma factors, and the difference in the frequency of sigma factors in bacteria Expand material on integrons as these are becoming increasingly important in antibiotic resistance Enhanced treatment of molecular phylogeny Complete revision and updating of the final chapter on ‘Gene Mapping and Genomics’ Two-colour illustrations throughout. The focus of the book remains firmly on bacteria and will be invaluable to students studying microbiology, biotechnology, molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics and related biomedical sciences.
This second edition is based on the successful concept of the first edition in presenting a unified perspective on molecular charge and energy transfer processes. The authors bridge the regimes of coherent and dissipative dynamics, thus establishing the connection between classic rate theories and modern treatments of ultrafast phenomena. The book serves as an introduction for graduate students and researchers. Among the new topics of this second edition are – semiclassical and quantum-classical hybrid formulations of molecular dynamics – the basics of femtosecond nonlinear spectroscopy – electron transfer through molecular bridges and proteins – multidimensional tunneling in proton transfer reactions – two-exciton states and exciton annihilation in biological and nonbiological chromophore complexes More illustrating examples as well as an enlarged reference list are added. A new chapter gives an introduction into the theory of laser pulse control of molecular transfer processes.
The long-awaited second edition of the successful book covering molecular switches now in two volumes! Providing principles and applications this book brings you everything you need to know about molecular switches – a hot topic in the nanoworld. The major classes of molecular switches including catenanes, rotaxanes, azobenzenes together with polymer and biomolecular switching systems and DNA based switches are covered. Chemists and material scientists interested in one of the most innovative areas of their science will benefit greatly from reading this book. «This book will appeal most to organic chemists, because of the way new structures are introduced through their synthesis, but it will also provide a useful introduction for other scientists, provided they are conversant with molecular structures.» (Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry) «… a comprehensive and up-to-date insight …» (Chemistry & Industry)
A comprehensive look at the latest research findings and clinical applications of oncogenic viruses Written by a panel of academic experts, Viral Oncology is the first self-contained and comprehensive book to present both scientific and clinical information on viruses linked to some of the most important human cancers. Readers can turn to this book for the most in-depth and up-to-date coverage of: HPV-associated cancers; molecular events associated with HPV-induced human cancer; the role of the HPV E6 oncoprotein in malignant progression; virus association with brain tumors; involvement of the polyomavirus JCV in colorectal cancer; possibleassociation of BKV with prostate cancer; oncogenic transformation bypolyomavirus large T antigen; SV40 and human cancer; SV40 and mesothelioma; molecular immunology of hepatitis B–associated viral cancer; hepatitis B vaccine and hepatocellular carcinoma; pathogenesis of acute and chronic hepatitis Cvirus infection; molecular mechanisms of hepatitis C virus-induced cellulartransformation; clinical aspects of HTLV-1 associated cancer; oncogenic potential of the HTLV-1 tax protein; HIV-associated malignancy; HIV-related lymphoma; biology and epidemiology of HHV-8; the role of KSHV in pathogenesis of Kaposi'ssarcoma; molecular pathobiology of EBV infection; and EBV as a pathogen. Several chapters are devoted to the basic science of oncogenic viruses for thestudy of their pathogenesis, drug development, and employment of viral vectorsfor vaccine and gene therapy. The book also includes complementary clinically based chapters describing natural courses and treatments. Additionally, bonusclinical materials are embedded within chapters and an easy-to-use indexcompletes the book. Viral Oncology is an essential resource for clinical and research oncologists in medical facilities and biological research laboratories; clinicians and scientists working in related biomedical areas; medical students working toward a first or higher degree in the life sciences and other biomedical fields; and pharmaceutical scientists and developers.
The proteins that gather light for plant photosynthesis are embedded within cell membranes in a site called the thylakoid membrane (or the «photosynthetic membrane»). These proteins form the light harvesting antenna that feeds with energy a number of vital photosynthetic processes such as water oxidation and oxygen evolution, the pumping of protons across the thylakoid membranes coupled with the electron transport chain of the photosystems and cytochrome b6f complex, and ATP synthesis by ATP synthase utilizing the generated proton gradient. The Photosynthetic Membrane: Molecular Mechanisms and Biophysics of Light Harvesting is an introduction to the fundamental design and function of the light harvesting photosynthetic membrane, one of the most common and most important structures of life. It describes the underlying structure of the membrane, the variety and roles of the membrane proteins, the atomic structures of light harvesting complexes and their macromolecular assemblies, the molecular mechanisms and dynamics of light harvesting and primary energy transformations, and the broad range of adaptations to different light environments. The book shows, using the example of the photosynthetic membrane, how complex biological structures utilize principles of chemistry and physics in order to carry out biological functions. The Photosynthetic Membrane: Molecular Mechanisms of Light Harvesting will appeal to a wide audience of undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as researchers working in the fields of biochemistry, molecular biology, biophysics, plant science and bioengineering.
An introduction to one of the fundamental tools in chemical research—spectroscopy and photophysics in condensed-phase and extended systems A great deal of modern research in chemistry and materials science involves the interaction of radiation with condensed-phase systems such as molecules in liquids and solids as well as molecules in more complex media, molecular aggregates, metals, semiconductors, and composites. Condensed-Phase Molecular Spectroscopy and Photophysics was developed to fill the need for a textbook that introduces the basics of traditional molecular spectroscopy with a strong emphasis on condensed-phase systems. It also examines optical processes in extended systems such as metals, semiconductors, and conducting polymers, and addresses the unique optical properties of nanoscale systems. Condensed-Phase Molecular Spectroscopy and Photophysics begins with an introduction to quantum mechanics that sets a solid foundation for understanding the text's subsequent topics, including: Electromagnetic radiation and radiation-matter interactions Molecular vibrations and infrared spectroscopy Electronic spectroscopy Photophysical processes and light scattering Nonlinear and pump-probe spectroscopies Electron transfer processes Each chapter contains problems ranging from simple to complex, enabling readers to gradually build their skills and problem-solving abilities. Written for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses in physical and materials chemistry, this text is uniquely designed to equip readers to solve a broad array of current problems and challenges in chemistry.
Cellular domains play vital roles in a wide range of cellular functions. Defining cellular domains and understanding the molecular basis of their formation is essential to the study of cell functionality. This authoritative reference provides the most comprehensive analysis available on cellular domains, with emphasis on the definition and molecular composition of the domain as well as the functional implications of domain organization.