The optimization of chemical processes has attracted attention because, in the face of growing competition, it is a natural choice for reducing production costs, improving product quality, and meeting safety requirements and environmental regulations. From an industrial perspective, the main objective is often economic and is stated in terms such as return, profitability or payback time of an investment.In this book, modeling, simulation and optimization of fluid catalytic cracking unit, (FCCU)was carried out. The heterogeneous catalytic cracking reactor was modeled as plug flow reactor (PFR) with the gas oil being the fluid mixed with the Magnesiev-370 catalyst, while the coke combustion reactor was modeled as continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The model however was lumped as gas oil, fuel gas, gasoline, and bottom oil; thus the model was built in HSYSY simulation environment.The book focuses on providing processing engineering, modeling supports and optimization using a computer based simulator ‘HYSYS’ to help numerous refiners around the globe and researchers to develop a process optimization strategy for the FCCU
Water pollution is major problem for industries like tannery and textile, because they discharge large amount of wastewater. Adsorption based water treatment plant is a first choice for industrial application. This book describes the different steps for developing an adsorption based wastewater treatment process. Removal of hexavalent chromium from tannery effluent and reactive dyes from textile effluent has been described in this book. This book also elucidates the method of optimization using response surface methodology. A software MINITAB was used for this purpose. Construction and utilization of neural network model has been described in this work. Neural network model was developed using MATLAB. Readers will get a clear idea about the modeling, simulation and optimization of wastewater treatment plant.
Geological Carbon Storage (GCS) is one of the most promising technologies to address the issue of excessive anthropogenic CO2 emissions into the atmosphere due to fossil fuel combustion. For GCS, the saline aquifers are considered very attractive compared to other options because of their huge sequestration capacity in U.S. and other parts of the world. However, in order to fully exploit their potential, the injection strategies need to be investigated that can address the issues of both the CO2 storage efficiency and safety along with their economic feasibility. Numerical simulations can be used to determine these strategies before the deployment of full scale sequestration in saline aquifers. This book presents the physical models, numerical simulation techniques and genetic algorithm based optimization method for CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers. Several model examples, benchmark studies as well as examples of actual large scale sequestration efforts in saline aquifers worldwide are presented and compared with available field data. The goal of the book is to provide important insights in physical modeling as well uncertainties associated with the numerical simulation of GCS.
The pyrolysis process consists of the thermal degradation of biomass feedstock, in the absence of oxygen/air, leading to the formation of solid (charcoal), liquid (tar and other organics) and gaseous products (methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, etc). Pyrolysis can be used as an independent process for the production of useful energy (fuels) and/or chemicals. It also occurs as the first step in gasification or combustion process. An understanding of the chemical processes and transport mechanisms of biomass pyrolysis is important for many applications including optimization of boilers and large scale furnaces, estimating the dominant design variable in pyrolysis reactor and gasifier. This book focuses on modeling and simulation studies of pyrolysis of biomass particles. Dominant design variables are identified for pyrolysis process through sensitivity analysis. The models on pyrolysis of biomass are corrected, updated, and also new models are proposed by incorporating the shrinkage effect. The results are very useful for the design of pyrolysis reactor and gasifier. This book is suitable for students in all engineering discipline. It will also be helpful to research scientist.
This work is provided a lot of examples in different fields of chemical engineering to design accurate solutions by using HYSYS soft ware. Chapter 1 includes basic rules of HYSYS soft ware to inputs data and conditions of the processes. Chapter 2 gives deep explain about distillation column to install it in chemical plant. This book shows in the other chapters’ scientific steps to install for different separation process using different examples and also, provides different examples in heat transfer, mass transfer, modeling and chemical reaction for CSTR reactor to solve these problems depends on HYSYS soft ware.
Knowledge of the characteristic of photovoltaic PV module is a prerequisite for designing and dimensioning a PV power supply. This is the reason for the development of PV module models useful for electrical applications. This approach allows the development of a high-performance conversion systems balancing system-components and permitting the evaluation of the behaviour of the entire system in various scenarios. Seven variables studying model was proposed in this book as a simple method of modelling and simulation of photovoltaic module using Matlab software package. The method is used to determine the characteristic of PV module and to study the influence of different values of solar radiation at different temperatures concerning performance of PV cells. Taking the effect of Irradiance and temperature and wind speed into consideration as environment effects and Saturation Current, Ideal Factor, Series and Shunt resistances as a four inside construction variables, the output current and power characteristic of photovoltaic module are simulated using the proposed model.
In spite of the energy crisis, population and environment degradation issues, the use of automobiles has been going up. This call for continuing the efforts towards developing more efficient, environmentally friendly, safer and more controllable vehicles. This often translates into developing better models and increasing the use of onboard computers. The use of computers for control invariably requires models which execute faster and are reliable even in extreme conditions. Bond graph based techniques allow the development of continuously extensible models and easier integration with control systems.The present work deals with the development of the so called half car models using Bond graph based approaches to study the response of the vehicle while passing over a ramp or uneven surface.A successful compilation of the Bond graph on the Bond graph package Symbol Shakti shows that the model has been created with logical correctness.More extensive validation may be needed before it can be taken up for testing its utility for online control.
Physical and analytical mathematical modeling techniques considerably enhance study of reactions’ mechanisms and optimization of experimental planning of reacting systems. Unlike physical models that are based on the principle of similarities, analytical models are developed from the reaction mechanism principles. When properly conceptualized, the developed models are effective prognoses tools to predict inter and intra relationship of technological parameters in any physical or reacting systems and environment. The ability to develop models will considerably optimize experimental planning procedures, reduce the research time and cost and can adequately authenticate the adopted research mechanism and hypotheses. This book is recommended for students, researchers and engineers.
OPNET is a simulation software tool with rich and complex set of libraries to model, configure and simulate the entire heterogeneous network. Computer network of the Campus consists of access points, switches, routers, servers etc. The model on OPNET is configured and simulated to analyze traffic load, delay, data rate, LAN and WLAN characteristics, ping reports and network efficiency. The project results in best settings for our network and can predict the cost, traffic behaviors, throughput and efficiency of the network beforehand. I will be using the OPNET (Optimized Network Engineering Tools) to find a delay, load and throughput of network by applying different network conditions. After analyzing the results through graphs I will choose the best setting for network.
The aim of this book is to provide the needed basic knowledge to use the Matlab-Simulink software on a computer to simulate the modeling and optimization of a single-phase high voltage power supply for industrial microwave generators with N magnetrons 800 Watts-2450 MHz (treated cases N = 1 and N = 2). This original work will contribute to develop of research in the field of manufacturing technology of current single-phase power supplies, three-phase and future hexa-phase with the aim to keep the operating performance of these systems and obtain the following benefits: • Reduction in the cost of producing the installation of the HV power supplies for magnetrons. • Decrease the congestion, volume and cost of maintenance of these installations.
The experimentation on pedal powered process machine has been studied. An experimental data based models for the pedal powered chaff cutting machine system has been established for responses of the system such as Instantaneous Resistive Torque.These empirical models predict the performance of the pedal Powered Chaff Cutting Machine . The Optimum values of various independent parameters were arrived at on the basis of optimization of the models. An Artificial Neural Network simulation has been developed for the phenomenon which truly represents the degree of interaction of various independent variables.
Batch and semi-batch reactors are used in the manufacture of low-volume high-value chemicals, where even a marginal increase in product yield can lead to considerably higher profits. Most of the present optimization and model based control schemes for semi-batch reactors are based on mechanistic models, whose development is a difficult and time- consuming exercise. Therefore, this book provides a new data driven approach for modeling, trajectory optimization and tracking of semi-batch reactors based on parameterization of input and output trajectories using orthonormal polynomials, and development of an artificial neural network model relating them using information available in historical databases. The generated optimal set point trajectories are tracked by developing data driven versions of generic model control. Simulation studies on semi-batch reactors illustrate their applicability. This can be useful to academic researchers working on data-driven modeling and optimization of batch processes and to industrial readers to explore the possibility of achieving better operational policies based on their historic operating data.
Aspen HYSYS: An Introduction to Chemical Engineering Simulations is intended for students who are using Aspen HYSYS for the first time and have little or no experience in computer simulation. It can be used as a textbook in freshmen chemical engineering courses, or workshops where Aspen HYSYS is being taught. The book can also serve as a reference in more advanced chemical engineering courses when Aspen HYSYS is used as a tool for simulation and solving problems. It also can be used for self study of Aspen HYSYS by students and practicing engineers. In addition, the book can be a supplement or a secondary book in courses where Aspen HYSYS is used, but the instructor does not have time to cover it extensively.
Regarding limitation of fossil fuels and the high consumption rate of their energy for transportation, inclination of vehicle industry toward other sources of energy is inevitable. Electric and hybrid vehicles could be a viable solution. This paper presents quasi-state modeling of hybrid power train components including representations of vehicular dynamics, power-electronic drive, electric motors, energy storage, and other mechanical components. A series hybrid transit bus is developed as a case study. The model is validated using fuel consumption data obtained from tests on an actual hybrid bus.
This thesis covers three aspects of Microstrip antenna designs. The first is the analysis and design of single element rectangular Microstrip antenna which operates at the central frequency of 2.4 GHz and the second aspect is the design of dual band rectangular Microstrip antenna which is operates as 2.4 & 3.08 GHz. Both antennas have been modeled, designed and simulated. The simulation process has been done through IE3D electromagnetic software which is based on method of movement (MOM). The third is the interfacing between IE3D/PSO (MATLAB). In this part optimization is done through Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm using IE3D simulation software. The technique has proven successful for many electromagnetic problems and is a robust and stochastic search method.