The concern about global warming effects by continuous exploitation of non renewable fossil fuels and scarcity of electricity generation accelerates the urge for searching alternative source of energy. Development of Microbial fuel cell using microbes present in waste water is the novel approach to treat this hurdle. Apart from biopower generation, it acts as a biosensor. Microbes metabolizes the organic matter present in waste water during the process electricity is generated. Within course of time the wastewater is treated with Chlorella vulgaris for the removal of phosphate for about 50 percent present in water. The amount of electricity generated has increased. The biomass thus produced, can be used for biofuel generation. For further purification of this treated wastewater, a novel method of treating it with Strychnos potatorum (chilla ginjalu) seeds is attempted.
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are electrochemical devices that use metabolic activities of microorganisms to oxidize organic and inorganic matter and generate electricity. MFC technology is a multidisciplinary approach to the quest for alternate sources of energy. In recent years, MFC technology expressed itself as potential technology for simultaneous electricity generation and waste treatment. It is the purpose of this book to outline, in a concise but comprehensible manner, the fundamentals and development of MFCs and their application as wastewater treatment device. This Book comprises six parts: Chapter 1 contains Introduction and aim of present work. Chapter 2 deals with the critical analysis of MFC research in past and future possibilities. Chapter 3 discloses major methodology used, while Chapter 4 shows the detailed results. Chapter 5 contains conclusion and Chapter 6 is conclusion of present research. As this book is based on results of MFC research, in writing it, the author has drawn about all aspects of MFCs to understand MFCs from every point of view. This book will be beneficial for students, researchers and teachers working on wastewater treatment and bioelectricity.
electricity can be produce by degradation of organic matter in a microbial fuel cell.m f cs have a number of potential uses.the must readily apparent is harvesting electricity produced for uses as a power source. the use of m f c is attractive for application that required only low power.Virtually any organic matter could be used to feed m f c,including coupling cells to waste water treatment plants.Bacteria would consume waste material from water and produce supplementary power for the plant.the gains to be made for doing this are the M F Cs are very clean and efficient method for energy production. chemical processing waste water and designed synthetic waste water have been used to produce bio electricity in dual and single chamber mediator-less m f cs(non coated graphite electrodes)apart from waste water treatment.m f c can be used as use the measure to measure the solute concentration of waste water (i.e.as a bio sensor system). A number of companies have emerged to commercialize m f cs.these companies has attempted to tap into both the remediation and electricity generating aspects of the technologies.
Attributed to exponentially growing global energy demand in current scenario, Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) is an attempt aimed towards achieving integrated water and energy sustainability. MFC acts a bio-electrochemical reactor (system) that utilizes the ability of microorganisms to destabilize organic compounds present in wastewater, of domestic or industrial origin, resulting in breakdown of these compounds into simpler forms coupled with generation of electricity. This imparts MFC, status of a biofuel cell, which has clear advantages of operation at mild reaction conditions, cost effective and biotechnology based wastewater treatment with reduced sludge formation coupled with energy generation over chemical fuel cells that use highly reactive fuels and severe operating conditions. This book aims at reviewing timely developments in Microbial Fuel Cell Technology with emphasis on its application in the area of effluent treatment clubbed with the potential for electricity generation.
Microbial and plant fuel cell represents a new type of green technology for electricity generation. In this book, batch production of electricity using river water sediment and plant sediment is reported .Experiments were conducted in a single chamber microbial fuel cell and plant fuel cell to study the amount of electricity produced. The study revealed that river water sediments and plants could be used effectively for direct electricity generation in single dedicated fuel cell. Plant fuel technology is still in an early stage of development but shows great promise as new method for renewable electricity generation. Such a system can produce in-situ 24 hours per day green electricity without harvesting the plants. The Plant-MFC concept has several attractive qualities which can provide the significant breakthrough for sustainable energy production in India.
The concept of microalgae cultivation as an integrated system in wastewater treatment has optimized the potential of the microalgae - based biofuel production. Microalgal biomass contains lipids, polysaccharides, proteins, pigments and other cell compounds, and it can provide different kinds of biofuels such as biodiesel, biomethane and ethanol; these microorganisms can also be used to produce bioplastic materials and the residual biomass can be applied as fertilizer.
The need for renewable energy is increasing in the society. Many forms of renewable energy is available at present. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) represents a new form of renewable energy, where electricity can be generated from wastewater with the use of microorganisms as biocatalyst. This technology uses the bacteria present in the wastewater to degrade the organic matter and simultaneously produce electricity. Both electricity production and wastewater treatment would reduce the cost of treating primary effluent wastewater. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) was made employing low-cost materials. Experimental data showed the feasibility of power generation from wastewater treatment. The study documented the advantage of both wastewater treatment and electricity production in a single system.
World is facing severe energy crisis, the most excellent way to overcome the energy crisis is using renewable energy resources. Thousands of gallon of water have been wasted through our sewage system, if we use that water to produce electricity that will be beneficial. The main purpose of this project is to present a new alternative method for electric power generation based on utilizing waste water.
Spentwash is the principal pollutant stream from distilleries which produce large volumes of wastewater, characterised by variable volumes due to the seasonal nature of production, high in organic load, low in pH and having high carbon-to-nitrogen ratios. This results in pollution of soil, ground and surface water if the wastewater is disposed off without treatment. Regulatory bodies therefore impose restrictions on the nature, amount and means of disposal of distillery wastewater. Due to the organic nature of distillery wastewater, biodegradation is a viable option for the treatment. During the present study, spentwash was treated anaerobically (Microbial Fuel Cell 1 and 2) followed by the treatment of optimal effluent from MFC-1 &2 aerobically in RBC.
Waste-water treatment is an important issue in the present day because of the strong nexus between water and fuel.It becomes more complicated with the depleting fossil fuel resource.Hence the waste-water treatment technology need to made more fuel efficient and attractive to the industries.Treating industrial waste-water by employing microalage seems to be a feasible option more so when it exhibits the potential of generating energy.energy. Micro-algae based waste-water treatment can be accomplished in a photobioreactor or/and passively aerated vertical bed. This work explores the feasibility of treating industrial waste water by employing microalage in a passively aerated vertical bed. The growth kinetics of micro-algal species under various conditions are investigated and the passively aerated vertical bed seems to be an very attractive option for treating waste-water with a recourse to generating non-renewable energy.
The use of urban wastewater for agricultural irrigation is a growing practice worldwide. Both in semi-arid and arid countries at all levels of development, and in low-income countries where urban agriculture provides livelihood opportunities and food security, irrigation is the most prominent and the most rapidly expanding use of wastewater. Agricultural wastewater use helps to conserve and expand available water supplies, and can contribute toward a more integrated management of urban water resources. Yet if not planned, managed and implemented properly, it is associated with a number of risks, including public health, agronomic, and environmental risks. Microbial health risks are especially severe in low- and middle-income countries, where the practice often involves the direct use of untreated wastewater and/or the indirect use of polluted waters from rivers and streams to irrigate food crops. Farmers and the urban poor are disproportionally affected. Chemical health risks assume greater importance as industrialization occurs.
Water pollution is a serious threat to mankind in the present scenario and, hence, many techniques are in use for water treatment. Out of them the adsorption is a commonly used method as it is simple, fast, and universal in nature. Typically, activated carbon is used as a perfect adsorbent for wastewater treatment but it is overpriced and requires regeneration. The regenerated carbon exhibits lower adsorption capacity with further management problem of the effluent obtained from its regeneration. These facts have grown interest in the search for solid waste based low cost alternatives of activated carbon that can be used for water pollutant removal. This book tells how (i) to develop low cost adsorbents from waste materials (ii) to remove toxic pollutants by using developed low cost adsorbents (iii) to optimize adsorption parameters for the maximum removal of pollutants by using developed low cost adsorbent through batch process (iv) to transfer batch adsorption conditions to the column studies; to evaluate the feasibility of the developed adsorption system in real samples (v) to ascertain adsorption mechanism for applying the developed adsorption system effectively & practically.
This book is completely based on the research on water treatment. Lots of researches have been conducted on water treatment. However it is still difficult to have safe drinking water around the world. Moreover treatment of wastewater is severe challenging phenomenon. Some developed country conduct the treatment of wastewater before its discharge to environment. But most of developing and undeveloped country still lacks it due to which many water born diseases have been deteriorating the human health and environment. This book is an attempt to present the result of treatment of wastewater before its disposal to the open environment. The treatment of wastewater is carried out by direct electric discharge. The samples of wastewater collected from three different industrial sources were treated by plasma (electric discharge) at the Plasma Laboratory of Kathmandu University. The experimental procedures and its results have been illustrated in concised manner. The results have been elaborated with bar diagram for more convenient study.
Water is an essential resource for living systems, industrial processes, agricultural production and domestic use. It is one of the most precious gift of nature without which no life could survive on earth. In the recent past several studies have reported the water bodies becoming increasingly contaminated due to domestic and industrial waste. Water pollution affects our oceans, lakes, rivers, and drinking water, making it a widespread and global concern. This research focuses on synthesis of natural polymer based new resins and fly ash based zeolites for developing a cost effective technology for treatment of heavy metals, contaminated industrial waste water. Main toxic hazardous metal ions present in the various effluents are Fe, Cu, Pb, Al, Cr, Cd, Zn, Ni etc. Fly ash is byproduct of thermal power plants. This ash is waste for them so it is easily available & economy. Synthesis of zeolites from fly ash is a better way for utilization of waste fly ash for the effluent treatment.
The book “Microbial Waste Management” covers all the issues related to waste, its various types, sources of generation, various management practices, and also offers the integrated waste management scheme, a complete solution to the biodegradation of waste by exploitation of microorganisms that would cause least environmental impact. It focuses on the easiest and safest way for the degradation of various kinds of non hazardous and hazardous wastes by microorganisms present naturally and/or bioengineered. Case studies have also been included to explain the utility, importance and limitation for using different waste management handling practices and product extraction techniques from the waste leading to profitable business and products.