Health Care in the United States combines an explanation of population health with a comprehensive introduction to health services delivery. The author, an expert on health care policy and management, shows how the U.S. health services system is organized, managed, financed, and evaluated. Filled with numerous examples and tables, this important resource illustrates key concepts, trends, and features of the system. It places special emphasis on recent health care reform legislation and its implications for the future. Health Care in the United States reviews the historical origins of health care, its resource requirements, costs, quality, and contributions to both individual and social well-being. By combining basic concepts in population health with coverage of health services, the book offers extraordinary breadth of information in a highly accessible, easy-to-read text. Along with an in-depth look at the origins and possible impact of recent health reform legislation, the book explains the ongoing dilemmas that face the health care system and highlights health and disease in the modern world, the fundamentals of epidemiology, and health behavior. Health Care in the United States also explains the special challenges of managing health service personnel and organizations. The author reviews key innovations in financing and delivery, explaining the outcomes of cost sharing, HMO enrollment, and rationing of services. This vital resource is written for students and professionals in health care management and policy, as well as public health, medical sociology, medical anthropology, social work, political science, and most, if not all, clinical fields.
This article raises the problem of equity in the health system in Switzerland. Three dimensions of the concept of equity are taken into consideration: the inequality in the financing of the health system, the inequality in the distribution of the state of good health, and, finally, the iniquity in the access to health care. Some methodological developments are presented as well as the results. In conclusion we observe that the state of good health does not depend strongly on income but that it exists some iniquity in the access to health services from specialists and that the income inequality is increasing due to the financing of the health system.
This comprehensive textbook analyzes the ethical issues of health and health care in global perspective. Ideal for students of public health, medicine, nursing and allied health professions, public policy, and ethics, the book helps students in all these areas to develop important competencies in their chosen fields. Applying a comparative, or multicultural, approach, the book compares different perspectives on ethical issues in various countries and cultures, such as informed consent, withholding or withdrawing treatment, physician-assisted suicide, reproductive health issues, research with human subjects, the right to health care, rationing of limited resources, and health system reform. Applying a transnational, or cross-border, approach, the book analyzes ethical issues that arise from the movement of patients and health professionals across national borders, such as medical tourism and transplant tourism, ethical obligations to provide care for undocumented aliens, and the “brain drain” of health professionals from developing countries. Comprehensive in scope, the book includes selected readings which provide diverse perspectives of people from different countries and cultures in their own words. Each chapter contains an introductory section centered on a specific topic and explores the different ways in which the topic is viewed around the globe. Ethics in Health Services and Policy is designed to promote student participation and offers methods of activity-based learning, including factual scenarios for analysis and discussion of specific ethical issues.
This study addresses the question how income affects health care utilization by the population aged 50 and over in the United States and a number of European countries with varying health care systems. The probabilities that individuals receive several medical services (visits to general practitioner, specialist, dentist, inpatient, or outpatient services) are analyzed separately using probit models. In addition to controls for income and demographic characteristics, controls for health status (both subjective and objective measures of health) are used. We analyze how the relationship between income and health care utilization varies across countries and relate these cross country differences to characteristics of the health care system, i. e., per capita total and public expenditure on health care, gate-keeping for specialist care, and copayments.
Self-Harm and Violence: Towards Best Practice in Managing Risk in Mental Health Services presents the first exploration of the most effective clinical practice techniques relating to the management of risk in mental health care settings. Based on the Department of Health’s Best Practice in Managing Risk guidance document, which was developed over a 12-month period in consultation with a national expert advisory group Features contributions from many members of the group that drew up the Best Practice document – all leading theoreticians and practitioners in their particular fields – and embeds the principles laid out in the guidelines in real world practice Reveals how contemporary risk management is a multidisciplinary and collaborative enterprise in which practitioners from different professions need to engage with each other in order to achieve success
RNA interference (RNAi) is a process in living cells whereby small double stranded RNA interferes with the expression of specific genes with complementary nucleotide sequence. Like many nucleic acid-based therapies, RNAi has great potential in treating various life-threatening diseases. However, the poor stability and cellular uptake of RNAi molecules remain considerable barriers to their efficient delivery which is paramount to a successful therapy. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to RNAi delivery, then goes on to discuss different delivery strategies, and concludes with current applications in various diseases. It covers: Mechanisms, Barriers, and Analysis of RNAi Delivery Nonclinical Safety Assessments and Clinical Pharmacokinetics: A Regulatory Perspective Bioconjugation of siRNA for Site Specifi c Delivery Nanoscale Delivery Systems for RNAi Environmentally-Responsive Delivery Systems for RNAi Light-sensitive RNAi Viral-Mediated Delivery of shRNA and miRNA RNAi applications in Cancer Therapy, Liver Diseases, Hepatitis B, and Ocular Disease miRNA as therapeutic agents and targets Advanced Delivery and Therapeutic Applications of RNAi combines the essential aspects of developing RNAi therapeutics from bench to clinic, and is invaluable for researchers working on RNAi, drug discovery and delivery, biomedical engineering, biomaterials, molecular biology, and biotechnology.
Communities of Practice in Health and Social Care highlights how communities of practice (CoPs) can make service development and quality improvement in health and social care easier to initiate and more sustainable. Using a series of case studies from the UK and Canada the book demonstrates how the theory of CoPs is implemented in the delivery of health and social care and highlights the associated potential, complexities, advantages and disadvantages. Communities of Practice in Health and Social Care equips practitioners, managers, educators and practice mentors with the knowledge and skills to facilitate the development and maintenance of Communities of Practice and highlights how the effects of Communities of Practice might be made explicit.
Praise for HANDBOOK of HEALTH SOCIAL WORK SECOND EDITION «Handbook of Health Social Work, Second Edition is a crucial addition for seasoned practitioners' libraries, as well as an essential foundation for fledgling social workers ready to enter health as a practice and research area.» –From the Foreword by Suzanne Heurtin-Roberts, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services «The book's strengths include the high quality of writing and the expertise of its contributors. It covers the field of health social work in significant depth and is sure to leave readers well informed.» –Mary Sormanti, PhD, MSW, Associate Professor of Professional Practice, Columbia University School of Social Work «Quite simply, this is the definitive volume for health and social work. In this second edition, Gehlert and Browne and their expert contributors have confidently managed to keep pace with current theory and empirical research across a wide range of subject matter that will be of interest to practitioners, educators, and researchers.» –Michael Vaughn, PhD, Assistant Professor, School of Social Work, School of Public Health, and Department of Public Policy Studies, Saint Louis University Thoroughly revised and updated, the only comprehensive handbook of its kind covering the diverse field of health social work Now in its Second Edition, Handbook of Health Social Work provides a comprehensive and evidence-based overview of contemporary social work practice in health care. Written from a wellness perspective, the chapters cover practice and research areas ranging from chronic disorders to infectious disease, from physical to mental disorders, and all areas in between. An excellent resource preparing social workers for the present and future challenges of practice in the field of health care, the Handbook of Health Social Work, Second Edition features discussion on: New trends in social work and health care, including genetics, transdisciplinary care, as well as national and state changes in policy Health social work and children The wide array of roles performed by social workers in health-care settings Ethical issues and decision making in a variety of arenas Understanding of community factors in health social work Edited by two respected leaders in the field of health social work, this second edition includes contributions from a diverse team of notable experts, researchers, and scholars addressing multiple theoretical foundations, models, issues, and dilemmas for the social worker in health care. The resulting resource offers both a foundation for social work practice in health care and a guide for strategy, policy, and program development in proactive and actionable terms.
Cluster randomised trials are trials in which groups (or clusters) of individuals are randomly allocated to different forms of treatment. In health care, these trials often compare different ways of managing a disease or promoting healthy living, in contrast to conventional randomised trials which randomise individuals to different treatments, classically comparing new drugs with a placebo. They are increasingly common in health services research. This book addresses the statistical, practical, and ethical issues arising from allocating groups of individuals, or clusters, to different interventions. Key features: Guides readers through the stages of conducting a trial, from recruitment to reporting. Presents a wide range of examples with particular emphasis on trials in health services research and primary care, with both principles and techniques explained. Topics are specifically presented in the order in which investigators think about issues when they are designing a trial. Combines information on the latest developments in the field together with a practical guide to the design and implementation of cluster randomised trials. Explains principles and techniques through numerous examples including many from the authors own experience. Includes a wide range of references for those who wish to read further. This book is intended as a practical guide, written for researchers from the health professions including doctors, psychologists, and allied health professionals, as well as statisticians involved in the design, execution, analysis and reporting of cluster randomised trials. Those with a more general interest will find the plentiful examples illuminating.
Advanced Practice in Nursing and the Allied Health Professions enables nurses and members of allied health professions to effectively diagnose and treat patients, in a wide variety of settings. It is especially relevant in regions where access to other health providers is limited. This new, completely revised, third edition shows how advanced practice continues to develop in response to the impact of health service reforms, the introduction of health policies aimed at developing a patient-led service based in primary care and changes in working conditions. Advanced Practice in Nursing and the Allied Health Professions presents an examination of the potential for advanced practitioners, at all levels, to have a significant effect on the health of the population and provide holistic care for the sick. Practice is identified as the central and most important feature of the advanced role in nursing and allied health professions. Advanced Practice in Nursing and the Allied Health Professions also considers: The development of advanced practice in nursing and the allied health professions and the implications for future health and social care services; Challenging professional boundaries that hinder the provision of care and pioneering innovation within a diverse society; The relationship between health policy and service reforms, current and future advanced roles; International developments in advanced practice; Leadership, management in relation to advanced roles; The responsibilities of advanced practitioners in meeting healthcare needs in a diverse society; Educating advanced practitioners and tracking their career development; The future possibilities for advanced practice and an agenda for research.