Duplex Stainless Steels (DSSs) are chromium-nickel-molybdenum-iron alloys that are usually in proportions optimized for equalizing the volume fractions of austenite and ferrite. Due to their ferritic-austenitic microstructure, they possess a higher mechanical strength and a better corrosion resistance than standard austenitic steels. This type of steel is now increasing its application and market field due to its very good properties and relatively low cost. This book is a review of the most recent progress achieved in the last 10 years on microstructure, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength properties, as well as applications, due to the development of new grades. Special attention will be given to fatigue and fracture behavior and to proposed models to account for mechanical behavior. Each subject will be developed in chapters written by experts recognized around the international industrial and scientific communities. The use of duplex stainless steels has grown rapidly in the last 10 years, particularly in the oil and gas industry, chemical tankers, pulp and paper as well as the chemical industry. In all these examples, topics like welding, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength properties (mainly in the fatigue domain) are crucial. Therefore, the update of welding and corrosion properties and the introduction of topics like texture effects, fatigue and fracture strength properties, and mechanical behavior modeling give this book specific focus and character.
This is the first detailed description in English of radiation and polymeric material interaction and the influences of thermal and optical material properties. As such, it provides comprehensive information on material and process characteristics as well as applications regarding plastic laser welding. The first part of this practical book introduces the structure and physical properties of plastics, before discussing the interaction of material and radiation in the NIR and IR spectral range. This is followed by an overview of the physical foundations of laser radiation and laser sources used for plastic welding. The third part describes the main processes of laser welding thermoplastics, as well as possibilities of process control, design of joint geometry, material compatibilities and adaptation of absorption of plastics to NIR radiation. Finally, the author explains applications of laser welding plastics using several industrial case studies from the automotive industry, household goods, and medical devices. Tailored to the needs of everyone dealing with laser welding of plastics, especially engineers in packaging, component manufacturing, and the medical industry.