Rites of passage hold meanings and serve purposes in traditional cultures that can inform us in dealing with challenges of adolescence. This work unriddles the transformative nature and the mystery of the Kikuyu circumcision ritual – irua ria anake. Key questions are addressed pertaining to: i) the meaning of the circumcision ritual practice to the contemporary Kikuyu males, ii) how the circumcision ritual plays a transitional role and how it influences self-redefinition, and iii) what the core philosophy behind the circumcision ritual practice is.
Male circumcision remains one of the most important rites of passage in many African societies. Despite the impact from the influence of Western civilization, some core elements of this rite have remained unchanged. Focusing on the Bukusu society of western Kenya as a case study, this research study is about how certain African communities use male circumcision ritual as a major means by which societies create men out of boys, and how the ritual process impacts the modern system of schooling in the traditional African societies.
The purpose of this thesis is to attempt to understand the concept of manhood in the context of Xhosa-speaking people; and to investigate why it is significant for them to use traditional circumcision in the male initiation ritual. In the context of the research problem, the aim is to understand: i) why traditional circumcision is important in executing this ritual, ii) people’s beliefs about the concept of manhood, iii) how the initiation ritual is practised in the present day, iv) the controversy and debate around the initiation ritual in the Eastern Cape, and v) the role of the government’s policies in regulating this rite. The field research was conducted in Mchubakazi Township in Butterworth, Eastern Cape. As regards the research findings, the following data came out: Manhood refers to belonging to a group of men who live in a certain village. These men are characterised by having undergone the initiation ritual, especially using traditional circumcision. A man who has undergone hospital circumcision is more likely to experience humiliation and disrespect from the orthodox Xhosa-speakers. Their argument insupport of this statement is that he is only half a man.
This study is a comparative analysis of initiation and the identity of the African woman as portrayed in the two novels, The River Between and Possessing the Secret of Joy by Ngugi Wa Thiongo and Alice Walker respectively. These two authors play out clitoridectomy as a rite of transition and incorporation of the African woman in African society. However, the contextual backgrounds that inform the setting upon which Ngugi and Walker narrate on circumcision of women leads to different conclusions about the practice. Ngugi, writes from the Kikuyu community in Kenya depicts the initiation of women through clitoridectomy as the defining moment of an African womans’s identity. Kikuyu society is in the midst of colonial transition Christian missionaries in their proselytizing activities are dead set against the practice of circumcision of women as barbaric and inhuman.
By giving information on the origins of circumcision ritual and practice of this ritual from past to present, this book especially attract attention to circumcision age and its probable effects on sexual dysfunctions that a man can experience during his adulthood. According to the findings of our research that provides basis to this book, it has been confirmed that the risk of premature ejaculation for men in Turkey who were circumcised at 7 years and above age range is on a significantly high level. In the societies where almost every men is circumcised, circumcision of a child before Oedipus complex occurs in the phallic stage, has a very important effect while identifying himself with his father. In this book it has been presented that the reason why being circumcised at phallic stage (3-7 years) in societies like Turkey where circumcision has been practiced for religious reasons and it has been considered as a child’s transition to manhood, increases the risk of premature ejaculation by discussing this subject within the frame work of developmental theories.
Вид изделия: Ваза для цветов Размер: 13х13х31 см Материал: Керамика Производитель: ARTEVALUCE Страна бренда: Китай
Вид изделия: Ваза для цветов Размер: 20х20х40 см Материал: Керамика Производитель: ARTEVALUCE Страна бренда: Китай
Вид изделия: Ваза для цветов Размер: 13х13х41 см - 2 шт Материал: Керамика Производитель: ARTEVALUCE Страна бренда: Китай
Вид изделия: Ваза для цветов Размер: 20х20х40 см - 2 шт Материал: Керамика Производитель: ARTEVALUCE Страна бренда: Китай
Вид изделия: Ваза для цветов Размер: 13х13х41 см Материал: Керамика Производитель: ARTEVALUCE Страна бренда: Китай
Вид изделия: Ваза для цветов Размер: 14х14х50 см Материал: Керамика Производитель: ARTEVALUCE Страна бренда: Китай
Производитель: Tango Материал: Хлопковый сатин Состав: 100% хлопок Размер: Двуспальное (евро) Размер пододеяльника: 200х220 см Тип застежки: Молния Размер простыни: 240х260 (на резинке) Размер наволочек: 50х70 (2 шт) Упаковка комплекта: Подарочная коробка Страна бренда: Китай