Natural preservatives increase the shelf-life of meat and meat products since extracts of many herbs, plants, and fruits possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. No scientific reports on Garcinia cambogia fruit extract for use as preservative in meat are available. Hence, the present study was done to evaluate the efficacy of the crude extract of Garcinia cambogia fruit as an antimicrobial agent in chicken meat and for its use as a natural preservative to extend the shelf life of chicken meat chunks and minced chicken meat under refrigerated storage. The in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of a crude extract of G. cambogia fruit against common food-borne bacterial pathogens was evaluated by agar diffusion assay. To evaluate its efficacy in the meat system, minced chicken was inoculated with Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium and the effect of the extract on these pathogens was studied during storage under refrigeration. The extract was tested to evaluate its efficacy as a decontaminating agent in the form of a dip solution and also as a preservative to extend the shelf life of chicken meat chunks and and mince, at 0.5, 1 and 1.5% levels under refrigeration
This Work presents latest information about new techniques of food preservation and their effects on food safety. Furthermore, the book deals with commonly occurring food spoilage micro-organisms such as salmonella Spp. This work have evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on pathogenic microbes of food specifically chicken meat. The book will benefits students and other stakeholders concern with food safety.
Meat consumption in developing countries has been continuously increasing. Quantitatively and qualitatively meat and other animal foods are better sources of protein than plant foods. Meat processing is the manufacture of meat products from muscle meat, animal fat and certain non-meat additives such as binders and extenders. Additives are used to increase the product volume. Additives are added to develop certain technological and quality characteristics in terms of taste, flavour, appearance, colour, texture, water binding, counteracting fat separation and preservation. Soybean powder, a plant protein can be used in cost reduction enabling the manufacture of low-cost but still nutritive meat products. Mixtures of seasonings can be used for enhancing the flavour of different meat products. Herbs such as dried mint leaves can be used as a natural flavouring agent in meat products.
Consumers generally preferred fresh meat without refrigeration. In addition, considering the prevailing conditions at the retail outlets, contamination of the meat with microbes appears unavoidable. Hence, high bacterial load is expected in the meat sold at the retail outlets mainly due to lack of awareness towards hygienic conditions and poor infrastructure in the retail outlets. Hence, practices such as incorporation of antibiotics, chemical preservatives, antimicrobial compounds have been tried. Increasing incidences of some pathogens connected to food borne illness acquiring antibiotic resistance has been a worry. This perspective has put pressure on the food industry for progressive removal of chemical preservatives and adoption of natural alternatives to achieve the goal concerning microbial food safety. Herbal spices have been added to foods since ancient times, not only as flavouring agents, but also as folk medicine and food preservatives . Scarce information is available regarding their use as antimicrobial in meat industry. Hence, this study has been designed to high light the efficacy of some of the spices as antimicrobial in chicken meat system.
Over the past few years, the consumption of poultry meat has become very popular due to their nutritional characteristics. Spent laying hens are by-products of the egg industry, and the meat obtained from these birds has poor functional properties. Furthermore, while the quality of broilers as raw material for manufacture of processed meat pro¬ducts has been improved through breeding, feeding and management, spent hen meat poses serious problems with regard to both processing and utilization. Chicken fingers are one of the new products suitable for effective utilization of tough meat from spent hens. This study was carried out to evaluate chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of semi-fried chicken fingers which manufactured from spent laying hen meat, selection of the best spices mixture which can be used as antioxidant in the process. This study should help research center in the food and should be especially useful to Manufacturers of poultry and meat products.
North American Meat Processors Association Spanish Chicken Notebook Guides – Set of 5 / Guias del Cuaderno de Pollo en Espanol para la Asociacion Norteamericana de Procesadores de Carne – Juego de 5
North American Meat Processors Notebook Guides, Revised – SET of 8 (Veal, Beef, Lamb, Pork, Chicken, Turkey, Duck, Game Birds)
Tuna, known as the ‘Chicken of Sea’ have red and white flesh in their bodies which taste differently. Red and White meat of Little Tunny (Euthynnus affinis) and Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), widely available cheap tuna species in the food market were subjected to biochemical analysis to estimate the food value. K.pelamis have more nutritive value than E.affinis, but both species can provide satisfactory amount of nutrients in diet including a reasonable amount of omega-3 fatty acids. Red meat was found out to be equally nutritious as white meat. Red and white meat of both K.pelamis and E.affinis can be recommended in diet as excellent nutrient source.
The term sausage is derived from the Latin word “Salsus” and that refer to chopped or minced meat preserved by salting. In ancient times, sausage mixture encased in animal intestine or stomach was more or less cylindrical in shape. It has been reported that sausage was used by the Babylonians, Chinese and Greeks about 1500 B.C. It is one of the oldest and most popular comminuted meat products whose origin can be traced back in antiquity. USDA meat inspection committee classified sausage as fresh, uncooked smoked, cooked smoked, cooked dry, semi-dry, luncheon meat, loaves and jellied products. It becomes more economical when it is manufactured from the cheaper cuts of meat and by-products. Since the product prepared from meat alone is far reach from the general consumers, attempts have to be made to develop value added chicken sausage using low value components along with non-meat ingredients without adversely affecting its sensory quality. Traditionally by-products have been a part of sausage and other processed meats for centuries. Utilization of edible by-products in processed meat products is usually determined by consumer’s judgement, regulatory requirement, hygiene, legislati
Chicken meat products are a very popular food commodity around the world and there consumption has increased over the last decades in many countries some of the reasons for the popularity are relatively low cost of production low fat content and high nutritional value of chicken meat. Considering the fact that chicken meat belongs to perishable foods the main concern of industries is the shelf- life extension of chicken product. Modern trends to achieve this goal include the application of the hurdle technology concept. Application of some natural additives like spices, herbs and their volatile oils which demand as a health requirement. Extending shelf life of these products by these additives considered as measure require .that’s besides it must be mentioned that this book study the a antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of some of these natural additives (cinnamon, cardamom, clove, white pepper, laurel leaf, cubeb). This book is useful for workers in food technology and nutrition fields especially whom interested in volatile oils and natural additives.
Presently high fat intake and its associated health risks make the globe thinking seriously to discover a suitable alternative of animal fat. In very foreseeable future, there will be a global need of an indigenous fat-replacer for meat product. It is not so easy job to remove the fat portion from a complex food matrix while considering the flavour, mouthfeel and other organoleptic and textural properties of a food, especially meat product. Removal of fat makes the product bland, dry and ill-textured. Some fat replacers have been identified to use in meat product among which carbohydrate based gels like Na-alginate, Carrageenan, guar gum, xanthan gum, pectin gel etc. are to be named. Carrageenan is permitted to be used as a fat replacer in meat product by USDA, which has been taken as standard one for this study. Two plant starches (sorghum flour and finger millet flour) have been selected for this experiment, considering their low fat content, high protein content, high mineral content, gelling property and typical structural pattern of the starch. The results showed that these two flours can successfully be used in meat products as fat-replacers.
Amongst the edible meat, broiler is low in fat but rich in protein content. The white meat of poultry is the best alternative health conscious for the meat consumers. Now a days, fast food parlours and restaurant are coming up rapidly with an aim to cater the needs of the people in places where life is very fast, highly mechanized and industrialized. Meat curry in India is a traditional meat product which is eaten afresh. But due to their perishable nature, such preparations are spoiled after 8 - 10 h at ambient temperature. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve existing methods of preservation that allows further production of safe and stable food. Therefore, the present study has discussed development of shelf stable ready to eat chicken curry from broiler meat by applying hurdle technology concept, which will be useful to meat industries wishing to launch curry products as well as to the professionals in meat science or anyone else who may be consider this information while planning their research based on hurdle technology.
Depending on the physical and chemical characteristics of soil, adsorption of inorganic components of leachates from preservative treated wood can limit movement of contaminants to other compartments (soil as a sink) and reduce their toxic effect by limiting bioavailability. Estimated adsorption maxima of Cu CCA in organic and clay soils were the same or higher than for Cu ACQ and Cu CA. The presence of preservative components in the soil decreased the yield and increased their accumulation in ryegrass. Uptake of As, Cu, and Cr in rye grass was just as well predicted by total soil content as with any of the bioavailable estimates. ACQ leachate showed higher toxicity to germination of ryegrass seeds and Daphnia magna toxicity; it had a lower effect on ryegrass growth than CCA leachate. Reaction of ACQ leachate with sandy soil components resulted in reduced toxicity to Daphnia magna. None of the contaminated soils had a measurable effect on earthworms, although there was some preservative uptake in the worms. CCA and ACQ had similar effects on soil microflora/fauna respiration. CA leachate had lower toxicity to Daphnia magna and similar toxicity to other organisms as ACQ.
Irradiation is the significant way of sterilization of food from microbes. This study is conducted to determine the microbial load on organic chicken and their elimination by gamma radiation and enhance the shelf life of organic chicken and optimizing the radiation dose that can be set as a standard for the sterilization of organic chicken meat in Pakistan. The microbes which eliminated by radiation treatment are Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition to this, acid and antibiotic resistant microbial load is also reduced by this treatment without causing any changes in nutritional, sensory and technical qualities of meat.
Nisin is polypeptide produced by the food grade dairy starter bacterium, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. It is an antimicrobial agent and is used as a natural food preservative with high efficiency. It has wide inhibition effect on gram + ve bacteria and widely accepted as safe biological preservative. Nisin is used as a food preservative in a number of thermal processed foods, particularly in dairy products, canned foods, plant protein foods and cured meat etc. The use of nisin as food preservative can reduce the temperature of the heat processing and shorten the time of the heat processing required, so that the use nisin can reduce the energy consumption of the process. It can enhance food product quality, and significantly extend the shelf life of food. This book focuses on the isolation, characterization and assay of nisin producing cultures from cheddar cheese samples. This book also covered the activity and quantification of extracted nisin form lactic acid bacteria.