Statistical data are not always precise numbers, or vectors, or categories. Real data are frequently what is called fuzzy. Examples where this fuzziness is obvious are quality of life data, environmental, biological, medical, sociological and economics data. Also the results of measurements can be best described by using fuzzy numbers and fuzzy vectors respectively. Statistical analysis methods have to be adapted for the analysis of fuzzy data. In this book, the foundations of the description of fuzzy data are explained, including methods on how to obtain the characterizing function of fuzzy measurement results. Furthermore, statistical methods are then generalized to the analysis of fuzzy data and fuzzy a-priori information. Key Features: Provides basic methods for the mathematical description of fuzzy data, as well as statistical methods that can be used to analyze fuzzy data. Describes methods of increasing importance with applications in areas such as environmental statistics and social science. Complements the theory with exercises and solutions and is illustrated throughout with diagrams and examples. Explores areas such quantitative description of data uncertainty and mathematical description of fuzzy data. This work is aimed at statisticians working with fuzzy logic, engineering statisticians, finance researchers, and environmental statisticians. It is written for readers who are familiar with elementary stochastic models and basic statistical methods.
Decision making by the aircrafts services of the international airport, which provides for intensive traffic of aircraft and their ground handling, becomes a very topical issue. If earlier it was believed that the intensity is provided only by the number of runways, nowadays a large accumulation of aircraft on the airport platform-field creates equally complex difficulties in comparison with aircraft take-offs and landings. Solving such problems with the use of «crisp methods» of queuing theory gives little. This article deals with modern «fuzzy methods» based on simulation modeling and fuzzy logic.
The training system is implemented with the use of the fuzzy classifier that represents fuzzy knowledge base, the input of which receives signals about current state of the traction rolling stock and of the environment. The results of the work allow implementing intelligent DSS in modern locomotives. This will enhance the level of safety and efficiency of driving a train.
Logic concepts are more mainstream than you may realize. There’s logic every place you look and in almost everything you do, from deciding which shirt to buy to asking your boss for a raise, and even to watching television, where themes of such shows as CSI and Numbers incorporate a variety of logistical studies. Logic For Dummies explains a vast array of logical concepts and processes in easy-to-understand language that make everything clear to you, whether you’re a college student of a student of life. You’ll find out about: Formal Logic Syllogisms Constructing proofs and refutations Propositional and predicate logic Modal and fuzzy logic Symbolic logic Deductive and inductive reasoning Logic For Dummies tracks an introductory logic course at the college level. Concrete, real-world examples help you understand each concept you encounter, while fully worked out proofs and fun logic problems encourage you students to apply what you’ve learned.
This book concerns the use of dioid algebra as (max, +) algebra to treat the synchronization of tasks expressed by the maximum of the ends of the tasks conditioning the beginning of another task – a criterion of linear programming. A classical example is the departure time of a train which should wait for the arrival of other trains in order to allow for the changeover of passengers. The content focuses on the modeling of a class of dynamic systems usually called “discrete event systems” where the timing of the events is crucial. Events are viewed as sudden changes in a process which is, essentially, a man-made system, such as automated manufacturing lines or transportation systems. Its main advantage is its formalism which allows us to clearly describe complex notions and the possibilities to transpose theoretical results between dioids and practical applications.
Tested and proven strategy to develop optimal automated process fault analyzers Process fault analyzers monitor process operations in order to identify the underlying causes of operational problems. Several diagnostic strategies exist for automating process fault analysis; however, automated fault analysis is still not widely used within the processing industries due to problems of cost and performance as well as the difficulty of modeling process behavior at needed levels of detail. In response, this book presents the method of minimal evidence (MOME), a model-based diagnostic strategy that facilitates the development and implementation of optimal automated process fault analyzers. MOME was created at the University of Delaware by the researchers who developed the FALCON system, a real-time, online process fault analyzer. The authors demonstrate how MOME is used to diagnose single and multiple fault situations, determine the strategic placement of process sensors, and distribute fault analyzers within large processing systems. Optimal Automated Process Fault Analysis begins by exploring the need to automate process fault analysis. Next, the book examines: Logic of model-based reasoning as used in MOME MOME logic for performing single and multiple fault diagnoses Fuzzy logic algorithms for automating MOME Distributing process fault analyzers throughout large processing systems Virtual SPC analysis and its use in FALCONEER IV Process state transition logic and its use in FALCONEER IV The book concludes with a summary of the lessons learned by employing FALCONEER IV in actual process applications, including the benefits of «intelligent supervision» of process operations. With this book as their guide, readers have a powerful new tool for ensuring the safety and reliability of any chemical processing system.
Explains for the first time how «computing with words» can aid in making subjective judgments Lotfi Zadeh, the father of fuzzy logic, coined the phrase «computing with words» (CWW) to describe a methodology in which the objects of computation are words and propositions drawn from a natural language. Perceptual Computing explains how to implement CWW to aid in the important area of making subjective judgments, using a methodology that leads to an interactive device—a «Perceptual Computer»—that propagates random and linguistic uncertainties into the subjective judgment in a way that can be modeled and observed by the judgment maker. This book focuses on the three components of a Perceptual Computer—encoder, CWW engines, and decoder—and then provides detailed applications for each. It uses interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2 FSs) and fuzzy logic as the mathematical vehicle for perceptual computing, because such fuzzy sets can model first-order linguistic uncertainties whereas the usual kind of fuzzy sets cannot. Drawing upon the work on subjective judgments that Jerry Mendel and his students completed over the past decade, Perceptual Computing shows readers how to: Map word-data with its inherent uncertainties into an IT2 FS that captures these uncertainties Use uncertainty measures to quantify linguistic uncertainties Compare IT2 FSs by using similarity and rank Compute the subsethood of one IT2 FS in another such set Aggregate disparate data, ranging from numbers to uniformly weighted intervals to nonuniformly weighted intervals to words Aggregate multiple-fired IF-THEN rules so that the integrity of word IT2 FS models is preserved Free MATLAB-based software is also available online so readers can apply the methodology of perceptual computing immediately, and even try to improve upon it. Perceptual Computing is an important go-to for researchers and students in the fields of artificial intelligence and fuzzy logic, as well as for operations researchers, decision makers, psychologists, computer scientists, and computational intelligence experts.
In recent years, control systems have become more sophisticated in order to meet increased performance and safety requirements for modern technological systems. Engineers are becoming more aware that conventional feedback control design for a complex system may result in unsatisfactory performance, or even instability, in the event of malfunctions in actuators, sensors or other system components. In order to circumvent such weaknesses, new approaches to control system design have emerged which can tolerate component malfunctions while maintaining acceptable stability and performance. These types of control systems are often known as fault-tolerant control systems (FTCS). More precisely, FTCS are control systems which possess the ability to accommodate component failure automatically. Analysis and Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Control Systems comprehensively covers the analysis and synthesis methods of fault tolerant control systems. It unifies the methods for developing controllers and filters for a wide class of dynamical systems and reports on the recent technical advances in design methodologies. MATLAB® is used throughout the book, to demonstrate methods of analysis and design. Key features: • Provides advanced theoretical methods and typical practical applications • Provides access to a spectrum of control design methods applied to industrial systems • Includes case studies and illustrative examples • Contains end-of-chapter problems Analysis and Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Control Systems is a comprehensive reference for researchers and practitioners working in this area, and is also a valuable source of information for graduates and senior undergraduates in control, mechanical, aerospace, electrical and mechatronics engineering departments.
An enlightening introduction to the study of logic: its history, philosophical foundations, and formal structures Logic: Inquiry, Argument, and Order is the first book of its kind to frame the study of introductory logic in terms of problems connected to wider issues of knowledge and judgment that arise in the context of racial, cultural, and religious diversity. With its accessible style and integration of philosophical inquiry and real-life concerns, this book offers a novel approach to the theory of logic and its relevance to questions of meaning and value that arise in the world around us. The book poses four problems for logic: Is logic separate from experience? Does logic require dualisms? Can logic reconcile opposed ways of understanding the world? And when things are divided, does the boundary have a logic? The author begins the exploration of these questions with a discussion of the process of analyzing and constructing arguments. Using the logical theories of C. S. Peirce, John Dewey, and Josiah Royce to frame the investigation, subsequent chapters outline the process of inquiry, the concept of communicative action, the nature of validity, categorical reasoning through the theory of the syllogism, and inductive reasoning and probability. The book concludes with a presentation of modal logic, propositional logic, and quantification. Logic is presented as emerging from the activities of inquiry and communication, allowing readers to understand even the most difficult aspects of formal logic as straightforward developments of the process of anticipating and taking action. Numerous practice problems use arguments related to issues of diversity and social theory, and the book introduces methods of proving validity that include Venn diagrams, natural deduction, and the method of tableaux. Logic: Inquiry, Argument, and Order is an ideal book for courses on philosophical methods and critical reasoning at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also an insightful reference for anyone who would like to explore a cross-cultural approach to the topic of logic.
System Simulation Techniques with MATLAB and Simulink comprehensively explains how to use MATLAB and Simulink to perform dynamic systems simulation tasks for engineering and non-engineering applications. This book begins with covering the fundamentals of MATLAB programming and applications, and the solutions to different mathematical problems in simulation. The fundamentals of Simulink modelling and simulation are then presented, followed by coverage of intermediate level modelling skills and more advanced techniques in Simulink modelling and applications. Finally the modelling and simulation of engineering and non-engineering systems are presented. The areas covered include electrical, electronic systems, mechanical systems, pharmacokinetic systems, video and image processing systems and discrete event systems. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation and real-time application are also discussed. Key features: Progressive building of simulation skills using Simulink, from basics through to advanced levels, with illustrations and examples Wide coverage of simulation topics of applications from engineering to non-engineering systems Dedicated chapter on hardware-in-the-loop simulation and real time control End of chapter exercises A companion website hosting a solution manual and powerpoint slides System Simulation Techniques with MATLAB and Simulink is a suitable textbook for senior undergraduate/postgraduate courses covering modelling and simulation, and is also an ideal reference for researchers and practitioners in industry.