The development of fuel cells over the last century has been heavily influenced by external factors. Initially, fuel cells were seen as an attractive means for the generation of power because the efficiencies of other technologies were very poor. However, as the efficiency of these other technologies rapidly improved, the interest in fuel cells faded. Then, in 1950’s fuel cells were rapidly developed for application in space. More recently, significant technical progress in fuel cell technology has made fuel cells appear more viable than ever for a variety of applications. Additionally, concerns about renewable energy resources and the environment have increased interests in generating power with even higher efficiencies and lower emissions, and this has also raised the interest in fuel cells. Although some interesting work was done on fuel cells during the first half of the 20th century, Sir Francis Bacon began his historical work on fuel cells in 1933 and developed a hydrogen-oxygen cell that operated at moderate temperatures using alkaline.
Electrical cell impedance sensing (ECIS) provides an interesting potential towards real time label free diagnostic tools. Its current use to measure cell growth and study the cell cultures requires transmission and fluorescent microscopy to confirm the results. Gold electrodes traditionally used in ECIS hinder the microscopy and hence the use of a new material that allows electrical measurements and improved level of microscopy is essential. PEDOT, a conducting polymer, can bridge the gap between ECIS and microscopy, hence paving the way for new sensor systems and satisfying the traditional biologists who desire confirmation of results through microscopy.
Considerable efforts are being given to develop commercially viable technologies in order to alleviate the dependence on hydrocarbons as well as to reduce carbon dioxide emission by the use of fossil fuel. The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has emerged as one of the most promising clean energy technology for residential and automotive applications. The high power density, low operating temperature, convenient fuel supply, longer lifetime, and modularity are the attractive features of PEMFC. This book covers the detailed methodology for development and characterization of composite bipolar plate for PEMFC. It also includes the methodology for synthesis and characterization of graphene. The synthesized monolayer graphene was used as one of the reinforcements for the composite bipolar plate. The state of the art for development and performance evaluation of PEMFC is discussed in detail. The information presented in this book will be helpful to the researchers, academicians, and manufacturers for the development of the composite bipolar plate for PEMFC.
electricity can be produce by degradation of organic matter in a microbial fuel cell.m f cs have a number of potential uses.the must readily apparent is harvesting electricity produced for uses as a power source. the use of m f c is attractive for application that required only low power.Virtually any organic matter could be used to feed m f c,including coupling cells to waste water treatment plants.Bacteria would consume waste material from water and produce supplementary power for the plant.the gains to be made for doing this are the M F Cs are very clean and efficient method for energy production. chemical processing waste water and designed synthetic waste water have been used to produce bio electricity in dual and single chamber mediator-less m f cs(non coated graphite electrodes)apart from waste water treatment.m f c can be used as use the measure to measure the solute concentration of waste water (i.e.as a bio sensor system). A number of companies have emerged to commercialize m f cs.these companies has attempted to tap into both the remediation and electricity generating aspects of the technologies.
Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the challenging energy conversion devices for transportation and distributed power generation systems due to its attractive features such as high power density, low operating temperature, minimal emissions, negligible noise, and high efficiency. The success of the PEMFC technology is largely influenced by bipolar plate as well as electrocatalyst support apart from other components. This book covers the detailed methodology for synthesis and characterization of graphene. The synthesized monolayer graphene is investigated as reinforcement into the carbon-polymer composite bipolar plate. The developed optimized composite bipolar plate is evaluated for high temperature PEMFC (HT-PEMFC) application. Moreover, the graphene is used as an electrocatalyst support to enhance the electrochemical activity of PEMFC electrocatalyst. The state of the art information for the development and performance evaluation of PEMFC is discussed in detail. The information presented in this book will be helpful to the researchers, academicians, and manufacturers for the development of efficient bipolar plate and electrocatalyst for PEMFC.
In this book application of carbon nanostructure materials as the cathode electrode and good nanocomposite proton exchange membrane in microbial fuel cell was discussed. As the main obstacle of commercialization of microbial fuel cell is high price of Pt as the most common cathode catalyst which covers about 50% of the whole capital cost of the system beside proton exchange membrane which is mostly Nafion 117 that near 40 % of the capital cost of the microbial fuel cell. This book is offering some new cathode catalyst (Activated carbon nanofiber) and also Nafion/Activated carbon nanofiber as the novel proton exchange membrane to be proper alternatives for Pt and Nafion 117 and also a big stepping stone for operating more commercial microbial fuel cell process. In this book also performance of this new found cathode catalyst and proton exchange membrane was compared with traditional system which is working with Pt and Nafion 117. The last part of the book also is new suggestions for continuing this work for reaching to a more commercial microbial fuel cell which have high potential for using in real scales.
Novel composite membrane systems for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) have been fabricated and tested. These take the form of a multi-layered structure composing of a commercial Nafion membrane and a novel composite binding layer situated between the anode and the membrane. Within the composite binding layer, inorganic molecular sieve filler particles are evenly dispersed throughout the Nafion matrix presenting a barrier that impedes methanol crossover. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the DMFC performance using composite membrane systems with 3 different types of zeolite fillers. The best novel membrane system was found to yield over 40% improvement in maximum power output compared to the standard DMFC.
Enzyme electrodes are biochemical transducers. They function by converting biochemical reactions into electrochemical processes. This functionality could potentially give rise to a new generation of implantable medical devices such as biofuel cells and biosensors. The main aim of this study was to fabricate and characterise enzyme electrodes for potential use in these applications. The approach involved testing various materials such as different types of enzyme, polymeric electron transfer mediators, enzyme entrapment materials, conductive supports and matrices and biocompatible polymers. Various enzyme immobilisation methods were used and various polymeric electron transfer mediators were fabricated and tested. The investigation was based primarily on electrochemical techniques. The materials and immobilisation techniques presented could potentially be used to improve future enzyme electrodes. This may be achieved through the novel use of biocompatible and biomimicking polymers, through simple biofuel cell fabrication and with the use of multi analyte biosensors developed during this investigation.
Development of a SOFC system requires proper modelling approaches and the use of numerical process simulators, which will provide clear insight into various aspects of the system operation. One way to couple mass and heat transport phenomena with electrochemical processes at the micro-scale with velocity and temperature distributions in the air and fuel channels at the macro-scale while including aspects of system components integration is to use multi-scale modelling approach in fuel cell research. A concept of numerical modelling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells at different length scales: system, component and fluid transport at the micro- and macrostructures of electrodes up to cell scale was presented. The major features of multi-scale approach that covers three main types of numerical methods: Computational Chemistry, Computational Fluid Dynamics and Process Simulator tools were described in this book. Presented modelling studies with various degrees of complexity enable a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of processes taking place in the Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. The role of computation in supporting SOFC system development was clearly recognised and summarized.
Electrochemical dealloying has proven to be an efficient way of fabricating nanoporous gold, the morphology of which can be tailored by controlling factors such as the etching time, temperature of electrolyte, composition of the alloy, pre and /or post heat treatment and voltage to suit applications such as fuel cell electrodes and sensors. This work aims at studying the effect of such factors as the electrolyte concentration on the morphology of the emerging material. A model relating the processing parameters and pore size is established by statistical approaches using the Design Expert 7.1 software. An equation that captures the individual as well as interaction effects on nanoporous gold is proposed. The validity of the equation is verified by existing research results. Simulation of this material under applied external load was done to achieve static properties in comparison with bulk gold. The applications where this might be helpful have been mentioned.
Attributed to exponentially growing global energy demand in current scenario, Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) is an attempt aimed towards achieving integrated water and energy sustainability. MFC acts a bio-electrochemical reactor (system) that utilizes the ability of microorganisms to destabilize organic compounds present in wastewater, of domestic or industrial origin, resulting in breakdown of these compounds into simpler forms coupled with generation of electricity. This imparts MFC, status of a biofuel cell, which has clear advantages of operation at mild reaction conditions, cost effective and biotechnology based wastewater treatment with reduced sludge formation coupled with energy generation over chemical fuel cells that use highly reactive fuels and severe operating conditions. This book aims at reviewing timely developments in Microbial Fuel Cell Technology with emphasis on its application in the area of effluent treatment clubbed with the potential for electricity generation.