Forensic Odontology is an investigative aspect of dentistry that analyzes dental evidence for human identification. Forensic Odontology plays an important role in establishing sex, age, and race of victims. Forensic Odontologist can assist other experts to determine age and gender of the remains by using teeth and skull traits.Forensic Odontology also plays an important role in mass disaster. Chelioscopy and Rugoscopy are considered branches of forensic odontology. Bite Marks play key role in the criminal cases. Recent advances in DNA profiling from tooth has opened new horizons in the field of Forensic Odontology.
Forensic science refers to areas of endeavour that can be used in a judicial settings and accepted by the court and the general scientific community to separate truth from untruth. Forensic odontology refers to the application of dental science to the administration of the law and the furtherance of justice. Forensic odontologist must have broad background knowledge of general dentistry, including all dental specialities. This book encompasses all the aspects of forensic odontology and summarizes the previous researches and recent advances.
This work covers most frequently used forensic odontology methods explained through case examples. These cases are presented to show to what extent the body undergoes changes, challenges forensic medicine and odontology are faced with and importance of teeth since they survive post mortem events. Conventional and novel methods of identification are presented following each case. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, there is a need to educate more forensic dentists and include them in mass grave exhumation teams and juidical system as well.
Forensic means ‘court of law’ and Odontology refers to study of teeth. Forensic odontology can be defined that branch of dentistry which deals with handling and examination of dental evidence , and after proper evaluation and presentation of dental findings in the court of law. Some of the important roles of forensic odontologists are Identifying unknown human remains through dental records , and assisting at the location of a mass disaster , eliciting the ethnicity and assisting in building up a picture of lifestyle and diet of skeletal remains at archaeological sites, determining the gender of unidentified individuals, age estimation of both the living and the deceased, recognition and analysis of bite marks found on victims of attack and in other substances such as foodstuffs and presenting evidence in court as an expert witness.
Human identification is important both from legal and humanitarian point of view. Forensic odontology is the application of art and science of dental medicine to solving of matters pertaining to law. The diversity of dental characteristics, the hardness of enamel and the resistance of tooth to the enviornmental challenges makes it an ideal material for identity purposes when recognition by other means fails. Through this book, the author aims to review the role the dentist can play in justice achievement.
Forensic medicine is a wide subject concerning with legal aspects, consisting of various branches like forensic radiology, forensic pathology, forensic odontology etc. Forensic radiology is one of the integral branch of forensic medicine. Forensic radiology plays an important role in various criminal investigations which are helpful in determination of identity, evaluation of different injuries, various Criminal and civil cases etc. The proper communication of the Forensic dept. and Radiology dept. both can help to solve various sequels in certain genuine cases. The various modalities of radiology like X-rays, CT, MRI, and ultrasonography etc. can be used depending on various forms of cases and their requirements in routine investigations as well as confirmation of various results regarding medicolegal cases, death reports etc.
Although forensic examination of teeth had been used to establish the difficult identification of individuals throughout history, it was never an organized field as it is now. Forensic dentistry is becoming more relevant today than ever before, with the increasing crime rate in terms of rape, murder, domestic violence, child abuse, neglect, fatal accidents especially with the mishaps involving explosives, aerocrafts and mass faculty incidents, etc. Much has been said and written in recent years about what is the role of tooh in forensic medicine This book fills the lacunae of providing material to understand the fundamental of subject subdivision at undergraduate as well as postgraduate level of dental and medical education. It is designed for refuelling education and motivation for new Forensic Odontology practice initiatives. This concise publication adds a refreshing perspective to help clarify the various ways of solving the medico-legal cases in judicial satisfaction.
Identification of an individual, living or dead is based on the theory that all individuals are Unique. Humans may be born with anomalies like missing teeth or have Dental Restorations. Teeth are resistant to postmortem destruction and are one of the most durable parts of our body, these characteristic features make teeth useful in identification of bodies in mass disasters, natural calamities and investigation of various offences by Bite Marks Analysis. Human dentition is considered as hard tissue analogue to the finger prints. Forensic Odontology deals mainly in the Civil, Criminal and Research Areas. The Civil class includes malpractice, fraud and neglect in which compensation is sought. Criminal sector includes identification which is done by teeth and from bite marks that may be present on the victim, assailant or on some inanimate objects like food items. Forensic Dentistry may be useful in solving some Medico-Legal Cases. Research field encompasses academic courses for Undergraduate and Postgraduate training, Teaching forensic Odontology to police and new research works.
Age estimation is a current focus of forensic research. The assessment of age is useful in planning orthodontic and pedodontic treatment, in pediatric endocrinology, anthropology, archaeology, paleodontology, clinical dentistry, forensic medicine and forensic odontology. Its use is increasing in both civil and criminal proceedings and it also aids in the identification of age at death of a deceased individual in mass disasters and natural calamities. Age estimation is also providing valuable information when birth date is lacking or doubted as in people who provide inaccurate details of ages as in case of illegal immigrants. In certain communities the chronological age of living people bears significant importance regarding employment, marriage and social benefits. In this book an attempt has been made to present the various dental age estimation methods in adults published up to day. The approaches, the advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed.
Forensic Odontology is an important branch of Dentistry that deals with identification, based on recognition of unique features present in an individual’s dental structures. Forensic Dentistry plays a major role in identification in man-made or natural disasters- events which result in multiple fatalities that may not be identifiable through conventional methods. Teeth are one of the strongest structures in the body, and are usually resistant to post mortem decomposition. Based on these unique features, we carried out a study and tried to estimate the time of death of an individual.
Forensic Odontology has been defined by the Federation Dentaire Internationale (FDI) as that “ branch of dentistry which, in the interest of justice, deals with proper handling and examination of dental evidence, and with the proper evaluation and presentation of dental findings”. Different evidences used for identification of victims and culprits are teeth, jaw bone, saliva, radiographs, bite marks, palatal rugae, dental records, dental casts, DNA, blood, lip prints, denture and microscopic slides. As evidence is the backbone of all investigations, strict procedure and techniques must accompany the collection and preservation of evidence. The central goal is to maintain evidence in a state as close to that it was in when the incidence in question occurred. Since the evidence can come in so many different forms, the packaging and storage of evidence must be equally diverse. Failure to follow proper procedure and techniques in collecting and storing evidence can significantly impact a criminal case or identification of an individual.
Dentistry has much to offer law enforcement in the detection and solution of crime or in civil proceedings. To write the history of identification is to write the history of criminology. Prosthodontics as a speciality can play a important role in the identification of an individual.Forensic odontology plays an important and often decisive role in the identification of disaster victims. Dental description of unknown or missing persons in cases of mass disasters is a very successful means of identification in forensic research. Difficulties arise if the natural dentition has been lost for one reason or another and has been replaced by dental prosthesis. From the prosthodontist view this difficulty can be prevented by delivering a prosthesis that carries patient identification.Forensic identification based on assessment of prosthodontics appliances is assuming greater significance, as labeling of dentures and other prosthetic appliances could provide vital clues for patient identification.
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