It gives me a great pleasure to bring out this book titled "Enzyme Applications in Textile Processing & Finishing". The applications of enzyme in textile materials plays important role in making the environment Eco friendly. Author believes this book will provide a platform to the students and researchers in under graduate and post graduate level. The aim of the author is therefore to bring fundamentals of the subject right down to the level of the average student and basic researches in the field of textile processing. The author would like to express his gratitude towards his mother, wife and members of his family for their kind co-operation and encouragement which helped in completion of this project.
Industrial Applications of Lipases encompasses the potential of enzymes in industries having main focus on enzyme lipases.It includes scope and basics of lipase, lipase reaction mechanism, properties and potential of enzyme lipases in industries. In detail it includes the various applications of lipase in different industries including food, paper, leather, detergent, textile industry etc. Students, researchers and industrial microbiologist engaged in the production, processing and applications of lipases in various industries would find this book useful.
There are continuous efforts to replace harsh chemicals with enzymes in textile processing. Cellulase is a commonly used enzyme for processes such as bio-finishing, bio-polishing and softening of cotton fabrics. The term enzymatic effect is used to account for the changes in the molecular structure of cotton fabric brought about by the cellulase enzyme as monitored by activity of the enzyme, loss in fabric weight, tensile strength and elongation at break, as well as the color strength of the enzymatically treated fabric when dyed with reactive dyes. Dependence of the enzymatic effect on essential factors affecting the enzymatic treatment was studied. Also factors affecting the color yield when the enzymatically treated fabric samples were dyed independently with reactive dyes were studied. Eco-friendly technique for multifunctionalization of cotton fabric was established. Water and energy conservations are featured to address quality of the environment. Three processes, viz., cellulase biotreatment, reactive dyeing and easy care finishing, are run in a consecutive sequence without involvement of washing and/or drying steps in-between; this technique is based on wet-wet procedures.
Enzymes are versatile biocatalysts and find increasing applications in various industrial processes including organic synthesis and bioremediation. However, the application of enzymes is often limited by the short catalytic lifetime and by the difficulty in recovery and recycling. In this study, different types of nanostructured materials were used as hosts for enzyme immobilization since they provided a large surface area, leading to a higher volumetric enzyme activity. This work demonstrates that different types of nanostructured materials were efficiently used as hosts for enzyme immobilization. The synergy between various nanostructures and suitable immobilization methods including CLEA resulted in vivid improvements of catalytic features, therefore it offers great potential to expand to any other enzymes for the development of stable system in many enzymatic applications.
The consumption of heat is usually encountered during many textile processes; namely drying, dye fixation, and finishing. Heat can be transferred to material by radiation, conduction, and convection. These three ways of transferring heat can be used either separately or in combination. Saving of time, energy and chemicals is of immediate interest to textile industry. The introduction of a new, economically-feasible, and ecologically alternative technique of heating in textile wet processing is of prime importance to reduce the consumption of energy, time and materials. Microwave is a very promising technology which finds new application in industry. It is a technology which can replace conventional heating in most of textile wet processes
In this study, the author carried out effluent analysis in the denim fabric dyeing and processing department machines like Mercerizer, Desizer and Continues Dyeing Range (CDR) and Finishing machines. From the each machine the effluents were collected then analyzed to identify the amount of pollutants load at each part of the machine. In all the samples the pollutants were measured in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), pH, Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Total Suspended Solid (TSS) and Colour values. Further from this experimental study the reason for the causes of high level pollution in each and every machine were identified. The Book further explains the various pollution reduction strategies to be followed in the textile processing industry and the process changes needs to be adopted to reduce the pollution level in the final effluent.
Up-to-date, comprehensive coverage on radiation-processed polymer materials and their applications Offering a unique perspective of the industrial and commercial applications of the radiation processing of polymers, this insightful reference examines the fundamental scientific principles and cutting-edge developments advancing this diverse field. Through a variety of case studies, detailed examples, and economic feasibility analysis, Radiation Processing of Polymer Materials and Its Industrial Applications systematically explains the commercially viable ways to process and use radiation-processed polymeric materials in industrial products. In addition, this one-of-kind text: Covers important chemistry and processing fundamentals, while emphasizing their translation into practical applications of radiation-processed polymers Incorporates new applications in nanotechnology, biomaterials, and recycling Systematically discusses new developments in the field and summarizes past achievements By helping readers—from students to scientists, engineers, technicians, and sales and marketing professionals—understand and solve problems associated with radiation processing of polymers, Radiation Processing of Polymer Materials and Its Industrial Applications serves as an essential reference and fills an important gap in the literature.
A cookbook of algorithms for common image processing applications Thanks to advances in computer hardware and software, algorithms have been developed that support sophisticated image processing without requiring an extensive background in mathematics. This bestselling book has been fully updated with the newest of these, including 2D vision methods in content-based searches and the use of graphics cards as image processing computational aids. It’s an ideal reference for software engineers and developers, advanced programmers, graphics programmers, scientists, and other specialists who require highly specialized image processing. Algorithms now exist for a wide variety of sophisticated image processing applications required by software engineers and developers, advanced programmers, graphics programmers, scientists, and related specialists This bestselling book has been completely updated to include the latest algorithms, including 2D vision methods in content-based searches, details on modern classifier methods, and graphics cards used as image processing computational aids Saves hours of mathematical calculating by using distributed processing and GPU programming, and gives non-mathematicians the shortcuts needed to program relatively sophisticated applications. Algorithms for Image Processing and Computer Vision, 2nd Edition provides the tools to speed development of image processing applications.
The purpose of this work is to utilize atmospheric plasma to increase coating adhesion between textile substrate and a surface which is repellent to liquid water, formed using electrospun nanofibers (NFs). Atmospheric pressure plasma and electrospinning can be scaled to industrial levels and promise cost and energy savings relative to many current textile finishing methods. A quick, simple and durable hydrophobic finishing process for woven military Nylon 6,6/cotton fabric is demonstrated, maintaining similar bulk garment characteristics like moisture vapor transmission to promote necessary dissipation of heat. The promotion of necessary heat transfer while providing protection against chemical and thermal hazards using a multilayered garment approach has become important for many textile applications including military and industrial uses for Chemical-Biological hazard protection, as well as medical and activewear textiles. Incorporation of a NF coating with a fabric imparts composite multifunctional properties, while demonstrating the potential for greatly decreased processing time and uses less water, energy, and hazardous chemicals than traditional finishing techniques.
Proteins and enzymes have a vast scope of applications in several aspects of our life like in detergents, leather, paper and pulp, textile, cosmetic, healthcare and food processing industries, for clinical and diagnostics research. Due to the wide uses of proteins and enzymes interest in the industrial production of such useful enzymes has grown up in recent years. Today the focus is on developing efficient purification methods for proteins which can meet the increasing industrial needs. A number of separation and purification strategies have been developed for these purposes including non chromatographic methods and also some modern methods including chromatographic techniques. This work aims to develop such an efficient method for the purification of biochemically important enzyme, Alcohol Dehydrogenase from yeast cells. Three phase partitioning is a useful affinity based non chromatographic method to purify proteins and enzyme which is applied to purify the enzyme ADH. This book will be proved useful for researchers, students, individuals and anyone working in the area of protein purification.
A vital tool for researchers, engineers, and students, New Sensors and Processing Chain focuses on the processing chain to set up in order to extract relevant information on various systems. Highlighting the design of new microsensors and various applications, the authors present recent progress in instrumentation and microsystem design, providing insight to the modification of the sensor itself as well as its environment. Various applications illustrate the presentations, which show how a processing chain is organized from the data acquired by a specific sensor.
The roles of enzymes in many processes have been known for long time. Their existence was associated with the history of ancient Greece where they were using enzyme from microorganism in baking, brewing, alcohol production, cheese making etc. With better knowledge and purification of enzyme a number of applications has increased many folds, and with the availability of the enzyme a number of new possibilities for industrial process have immerged. Pullulanase is one such industrially useful enzyme used in the starch processing industries. Pullulanase belongs to ?-amylase class of enzymes which is an extracellular carbohydrase which was first discovered by Bender and Wallenfels in 1961 from mesophilic organism Klebsiella pneumoniae (formerly known as Aerobactor aerogenes or Klebsiella aerogenes). Pullulanase are also called de-branching enzyme which hydrolyze the extracellular yeast, polysaccharide and pullulan. It converts pullulan into the trisaccharides, maltotriose. It consists of repeating units of ?-maltotriose joined “head to tail” by 1,6-bonds. Pullulanase specifically attack on ?-1,6-glycosidic linkage and it also attacks on ?-1,4-glycosidic linkage with other residues.
Microorganisms, especially bacteria and fungi, are the accepted sources of large scale production of enzymes like amylases. Amylases, that have immense applications in medicine, laundry, textile, food and beverage industry have increased potential to be reused upon immobilization. Entrapment in calcium alginate beads can be used extensively for various purposes to remove starch from starchy substrates without the loss of enzyme. This study will be of interest to enzymologists and bioprocessing industrialists as it envisages the use of calcium alginate entrapped microbial amylase in different reactors for effective removal of starch.
An authoritative reference on the processing and finishing of polymeric materials for scientists and practitioners Owing to their versatility and wide range of applications, polymeric materials are of great commercial importance. Manufacturing processes of commercial products are designed to meet the requirements of the final product and are influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the polymeric material used. Based on Wiley's renowned Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology, Processing and Finishing of Polymeric Materials provides comprehensive, up-to-date details on the latest manufacturing technologies, including blending, compounding, extrusion,molding, and coating. Written by prominent scholars from industry, academia, and research institutions from around the globe, this reference features more than forty selected reprints from the Encyclopedia as well as new contributions, providing unparalleled coverage of such topics as: Additives Antistatic agents Bleaching Blowing agents Calendaring Casting Coloring processes Dielectric heating Electrospinning Embedding Processing and Finishing of Polymeric Materials is an ideal resource for polymer and materials scientists, chemists, chemical engineers, materials scientists, process engineers, and consultants, and serves as a valuable addition to libraries of chemistry, chemical engineering, and materials science in industry, academia, and government.
The demand for industrial enzymes of microbial origin is ever increasing due to their applications in a wide variety of industrial processes. Enzyme mediated reactions are attractive alternatives of existing tedious and expensive chemical methods. Enzymes such as Lipase find their great use in a large number of industries such as food, dairy, detergent, textile, and cosmetic. However, with the realization of the biocatalytic potential of microbial lipases in both aqueous and nonaqueous media in the last one and a half decades, industrial fronts have shifted towards utilizing this enzyme for a variety of reactions of immense importance. This work describe about the isolation and optimization of Lipase producing bacteria.