It gives me a great pleasure to bring out this book titled "Enzyme Applications in Textile Processing & Finishing". The applications of enzyme in textile materials plays important role in making the environment Eco friendly. Author believes this book will provide a platform to the students and researchers in under graduate and post graduate level. The aim of the author is therefore to bring fundamentals of the subject right down to the level of the average student and basic researches in the field of textile processing. The author would like to express his gratitude towards his mother, wife and members of his family for their kind co-operation and encouragement which helped in completion of this project.
Industrial Applications of Lipases encompasses the potential of enzymes in industries having main focus on enzyme lipases.It includes scope and basics of lipase, lipase reaction mechanism, properties and potential of enzyme lipases in industries. In detail it includes the various applications of lipase in different industries including food, paper, leather, detergent, textile industry etc. Students, researchers and industrial microbiologist engaged in the production, processing and applications of lipases in various industries would find this book useful.
Microbial proteases are widely used in commercial applications such as food processing, leathermaking and papermaking. In addition, proteases are commonly added to laundry detergents. Bacteria of the genus Bacillus are commonly used for protease production. Commercially available recombinant proteases are made using proprietary microorganisms and processes and are barely affordable in some of the poor regions of the world. Therefore, interest remains in effective wildtype proteases that could be produced inexpensively for use in household detergents and other applications. In this context, this work reports on extracellular proteases of Bacillus subtilis ASQ01 isolated from soil in Sindh, Pakistan.
There are continuous efforts to replace harsh chemicals with enzymes in textile processing. Cellulase is a commonly used enzyme for processes such as bio-finishing, bio-polishing and softening of cotton fabrics. The term enzymatic effect is used to account for the changes in the molecular structure of cotton fabric brought about by the cellulase enzyme as monitored by activity of the enzyme, loss in fabric weight, tensile strength and elongation at break, as well as the color strength of the enzymatically treated fabric when dyed with reactive dyes. Dependence of the enzymatic effect on essential factors affecting the enzymatic treatment was studied. Also factors affecting the color yield when the enzymatically treated fabric samples were dyed independently with reactive dyes were studied. Eco-friendly technique for multifunctionalization of cotton fabric was established. Water and energy conservations are featured to address quality of the environment. Three processes, viz., cellulase biotreatment, reactive dyeing and easy care finishing, are run in a consecutive sequence without involvement of washing and/or drying steps in-between; this technique is based on wet-wet procedures.
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Fluoropolymer Applications in the Chemical Processing Industries,
The purpose of this work is to utilize atmospheric plasma to increase coating adhesion between textile substrate and a surface which is repellent to liquid water, formed using electrospun nanofibers (NFs). Atmospheric pressure plasma and electrospinning can be scaled to industrial levels and promise cost and energy savings relative to many current textile finishing methods. A quick, simple and durable hydrophobic finishing process for woven military Nylon 6,6/cotton fabric is demonstrated, maintaining similar bulk garment characteristics like moisture vapor transmission to promote necessary dissipation of heat. The promotion of necessary heat transfer while providing protection against chemical and thermal hazards using a multilayered garment approach has become important for many textile applications including military and industrial uses for Chemical-Biological hazard protection, as well as medical and activewear textiles. Incorporation of a NF coating with a fabric imparts composite multifunctional properties, while demonstrating the potential for greatly decreased processing time and uses less water, energy, and hazardous chemicals than traditional finishing techniques.
Ceramic materials and single crystals showing ferroelectric behavior are being used in many applications in electronics and optics. A large number of applications of ferroelectric ceramics also exploit properties that are an indirect consequence of ferroelectricity, such as dielectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric and electro-optic properties. This book introduces the basic principles and characteristics of ferroelectric materials and lists various materials chosen from single crystals, ceramics, polymers and ceramic-polymer composites which show ferroelectric behavior. Many different applications arising from ferroelectricity and related phenomena in ceramics and thin films have been discussed with their processing techniques
Proteins and enzymes have a vast scope of applications in several aspects of our life like in detergents, leather, paper and pulp, textile, cosmetic, healthcare and food processing industries, for clinical and diagnostics research. Due to the wide uses of proteins and enzymes interest in the industrial production of such useful enzymes has grown up in recent years. Today the focus is on developing efficient purification methods for proteins which can meet the increasing industrial needs. A number of separation and purification strategies have been developed for these purposes including non chromatographic methods and also some modern methods including chromatographic techniques. This work aims to develop such an efficient method for the purification of biochemically important enzyme, Alcohol Dehydrogenase from yeast cells. Three phase partitioning is a useful affinity based non chromatographic method to purify proteins and enzyme which is applied to purify the enzyme ADH. This book will be proved useful for researchers, students, individuals and anyone working in the area of protein purification.
Application of recycled textile wastes in cement materials is an experimental study involves searches for treatment of spinney wastes based on wet oxidative degradation technique. The resulting slurry was used as reinforcement for mortar composite product. The novelty of this work consists of four main subjects, (a) Partial degradation of the cellulosic spinney wastes before incorporation into mortar materials, (b) Mechanical, physical and structural characterizations of the reached composite based on compressive strength, porosity, FT-IR, X-RD, DTA, TGA and SEM analyses, (c) Evaluation of the add-value composite under some selected circumstances like frost and chemical attacks, (d) Rational approach for producing some mortar composite tiles that can be applied in the construction field. With its comprehensive coverage and systematic presentation, this work would be a useful text for chemists, environmentalists and engineers. Furthermore, it will be a valuable reference to the science and engineering students at various levels.
Polysaccharides are composed of many monosaccharide units that are joined one to the other by acetyl linkage to give a long chain. Chitin is a biopolymer consisting of acetyl-glucosamine. Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide consisting of B- (1, 4)-2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose units. It is produced by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. Today, Chitin and chitosan have many applications in the biomedical, pharmaceutical and biotechnological fields. Chitosan production from microbial origin has many advantages over traditional productions from crustaceans shells since it avoids limited and seasonal supply, processing complexity and waste removal difficulties. Currently, industrial production for chitin and chitosan is from the shell wastes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of chitin and chitosan from fungal sources. Fungal chitosan was applied as a cotton fabric finishing agent using pad-dry-cure method. The topographical structure of chitosan-treated fabrics was much improved compared with control fabrics.
This book is very important guide to all textile interests who are working in ECO-TEX labs, Textile industries and their allied fields. This book is a state of the arts studies the subject "Eco-Tex In Relation to World Textile Market" and clarifies the benefits of applying Oeko-Tex or Eco label requirements to customer, producers and retailers of textiles. Fiber origin, Dyeing, Printing, Finishing, Effluent treatment, Nanotechnology, biotechnology and Metrology developments can easily solve most of hazardous to human and environmental pollution problems associated with textile industries. At the end of this book most of labels give image on the ecofriendly product used worldwide and may help customer to make his decision to compare and evaluate what he needs especially for textiles products (clothes, intermediates, accessories….etc). Finally a diagram for the way to "Eco-friendly" Production, Processing, Marketing, Selection, Use and Care of Textiles was shown.
The roles of enzymes in many processes have been known for long time. Their existence was associated with the history of ancient Greece where they were using enzyme from microorganism in baking, brewing, alcohol production, cheese making etc. With better knowledge and purification of enzyme a number of applications has increased many folds, and with the availability of the enzyme a number of new possibilities for industrial process have immerged. Pullulanase is one such industrially useful enzyme used in the starch processing industries. Pullulanase belongs to ?-amylase class of enzymes which is an extracellular carbohydrase which was first discovered by Bender and Wallenfels in 1961 from mesophilic organism Klebsiella pneumoniae (formerly known as Aerobactor aerogenes or Klebsiella aerogenes). Pullulanase are also called de-branching enzyme which hydrolyze the extracellular yeast, polysaccharide and pullulan. It converts pullulan into the trisaccharides, maltotriose. It consists of repeating units of ?-maltotriose joined “head to tail” by 1,6-bonds. Pullulanase specifically attack on ?-1,6-glycosidic linkage and it also attacks on ?-1,4-glycosidic linkage with other residues.