The economic transition and market globalization processes has triggered structural changes in the Macedonian agriculture. Pig producers face challenges to meet the new market requirements and regulations which cause inefficient and less competitive production compared to foreign markets. This book aims to identify the level of technical efficiency on pig farms in the Republic of Macedonia. Data Envelopment Analysis approach is used to measure the exact quantity of inputs used in the production in relation to a given quantity of output. Furthermore, the data are analysed by making comparative analyses of the managerial behaviour and other non-measurable variables that influence the efficiency. The results determine what managerial activities influence on the efficiency. They indicate the type and level of inputs that need to change and the quantity of output that need to increase for the farms to reach the same technical efficiency as the best farmers.
This book is for all natural and water resources in the Republic of Macedonia. The natural resources of the Republic of Macedonia are characterized more with diversification than with abundance. The resources are relatively modest, but they are not a limiting factor for development. Water as a natural national wealth and a good of common interest is a dominant priority in everyday life. Water represents a factor that to some extent determines and limits the development. It is about overview of national policies and development plans in Macedonia, present status of water, water resources of the Republic of Macedonia, artificial lakes, benefit of the water resources in the Republic of Macedonia, water supply and irrigation, water pollution, the reservoirs in the Republic of Macedonia as a prerequisite for sustainability of the hydro systems, hydro systems in Republic of Macedonia, hydro accumulations in Republic of Macedonia, the impact of the anthropological factor on the microbiological pollution on the water. The R.Macedonia is a country with market-oriented economy and liberal market relations. The strategy of the economic development is based on the available resources.
The study uses data collected in 2009/2010 irrigated crop production year from a total of 130 farm households selected from three PAs of Fogera woreda of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The purpose of the study is to estimate Technical and Allocative Efficiency and to identify principal factors that cause efficiency differentials. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used to estimate technical and allocative efficiency of smallholder farmers in irrigated vegetables production. The DEA model shows that the mean technical, allocative and economic efficiency of farmers in the production of vegetables are 0.83, 0.51 and 0.42 respectively. The study suggests that attention must be given to access to credit, extension service, training of household head, and education which are found to be significant determinants of efficiency level. The result also indicates more fragmented land increases cost of production.
The productivity of a farm can be raised either by adoption of improved production technologies or improvement in production efficiency, or both. However, for rural smallholders in developing countries,like Uganda, that face low technological advancements, improvement in production efficiency becomes the best option in the short run. More so, empirical analysis of the determinants of the Technical, Economic and Allocative Efficiencies, can offer an explanation and basis for targeted livelihood policies.
This book presents the Albanian mafia contribution to the overall organized crime in the Republic of Macedonia. In addition, the aim and consequences of the ethnic conflict in Macedonia in 2001 which was carried out by the armed paramilitary group called National Liberation Army have been emphasized. The book is concluded with the analysis of 7 interviews, mostly in cooperation with university professors and people who have experience in combating organized crime in the country. The findings show the actual situation with the influence of the Albanian mafia in Macedonia. Such influence can be considered from several aspects, such as: participation of the Albanian mafia in total organized crime in Macedonia, the strong political pressure on the Government in the Republic of Macedonia that affects its legitimacy, and the psychological impact which has a destructive role on the country and its citizens.
India is a dominant player in the global market as far as turmeric is concerned. In view of the economic importance of turmeric in both national and farm economy and the problems faced by farmers in production and marketing of turmeric was analysed with the objectives of to study the economics of production of turmeric in Erode district, to analyze the factors affecting yield of turmeric and study the factor use efficiency in turmeric production, to compare the marketing efficiency of different channels through which turmeric is exported, and to identify the problems faced by the farmers in production and marketing of turmeric.
The study on economics of milk production was conducted in Chitwan district in 2005. The results indicated that production of milk was positively correlated with farm category, and cost of milk production was negatively correlated. The cost of milk production of small farm size category was 25 % higher than large farm size category. The feed cost (31.78%) was the major factor for explaining the cost of milk production. Benefit- cost ratio of large category was highest (1.42) followed by medium (1.33) and small (1.23) farm size category. There was significant difference in gross margin (p-0.005) among the farm categories. The higher marketing efficiency was found in personal selling followed by private and DDC marketing. The milk price (p-0.020), market security (p-0.022), and quick payment (p-0.048) were significant reasons for determining location of selling. In more than 60 percent of the production activities, involvement of women was higher than men, where as in marketing activities like milk selling, marketing training involvement of male was higher.
In Nigeria, tomato is mainly cultivated in the northern part of the country where it forms an important part of the farming systems. The growth of tomato production depends on the need to improvement in either in productivity or through area expansion. The increase in tomato production in Nigeria is mainly contributed by expansion of area. The productivity growth may be achieved through either technological progress or efficiency improvement . Several studies indicated that the existing low levels of technical efficiency hinder efforts to achieve progress in production . Despite the significant growth in tomato production, there is huge inefficiency in the production system of tomato production. An improvement in the efficiency of production system will have direct positive impact on agricultural growth, nutritional security and rural livelihood in a country like Nigeria, where tomato is one of the major crops.
Against a background of mass movements of the youths and educated members of the labour force away from the rural farm sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, with far reaching implications on both the rural and the urban sectors, the study being reported was conducted to examine the patterns, determinants and production efficiency outcomes of rural out-migration and off- farm labour supply by members of rural farm households in southwest Nigeria. The study found that 38.7 percent of the economically active individuals born into the sampled rural farm families have migrated to urban centres, while 47.3 percent of those left in the rural sector participate in off- farm activities. Off-farm employment accounted for 34.3 percent of the typical rural farm household members' work efforts, 21.7 percent of the household income, while remittances from the out-migrants accounted for 9.9 percent the household income. However, while income from off-farm activities significantly enhanced production efficiency of the farm households, remittances received from rural out- migrants did not.
The Indian agricultural scenario indicates that the food security for growing human population is paramount concern. This requires sustaining food production, which can be realized by increasing land and labour efficiency in agriculture through farm mechanization. Farm mechanization is considered to be one of the several pathways of agricultural development. In modern agricultural practices, mechanization of farm is needed from the view point of profitability of agriculture. A farming system cannot sustain with the traditional machinery. The mechanization of farm is also inductive to the diversification of the cropping system. The book will provide a venue for the sharing of practical application of existing systems and technologies as well as of strategies that will be most effective in tackling the very complex socioeconomic and environmental factors influencing the adoption and utilization of farm machineries.
The income from off-farm activity helps farm households to smooth their consumption, to undertake investment on their farm to boost farm production and to diversify their livelihood. This book tried to investigate the effect of off farm income on farm production and the determinants of off farm activity participation of rural households. The study mainly employed Tobit and Logit model to investigate the issue. Accordingly, the analysis revealed the positive effect of off farm income on farm production. Moreover, the determinants of off farm activity participation were also identified. Sustainable rural development is the focus of government policy in developing countries. Thus, the output of the study is expected to be used as a reference among researchers, stakeholders and policy makers to bring sustainable rural development.
The theoretical characteristics of logistics and logistics systems are numerous, with specific characteristics, different implications and missions. Logistics activities in the wine industry are very important. Macedonia is a large exporter of wine. In terms of export value of agricultural products in Macedonia, wine is at the first place in terms of exports of alcoholic beverages, and at the second place immediately after the tobacco. The winemaking in Macedonia is continuously increasing, especially the last ten years. Besides the increased production, a special attention is paid to the improvement of the quality of produced wine, as well as improving conditions for growing vines, thereby obtaining quality grapes. Several factors affect this positive trend and one of them is educated staffs of vine growers and oenologists which are involved in the process. Thus, quinary logistics takes an important place in the development of vine and wine production.
Livestock plays an important role in the economy of Mizopam as crop production is still traditional. Pig occupies a unique place, as pig rearing is considered to be the most encouraging and appropriate livestock enterprise. The present study was undertaken to find out management practices, source of information, and adoption of technologies by the pig farmers in Mizoram. From the study it is found that pigs were reared in stalls. The space provided to the adult pigs was inadequate. The farmers preferred cross-bred animals to rear. The overall adoption level of the farmers on pig rearing was partial. The adoptions of recommended technologies were associated with age, education, operational land holding, farm size, income from piggery, social participation. Personal localite sources of information were regularly used for farm information. Television, Radio and Newspaper were preferred sources of information under mass media. On-farm Demonstration was the mostly preferred by the farmers. The high market price of piglets and feeds, lack of training on pig rearing, lack of awareness amongst farmers, etc as major constraints in pig rearing.
Technical efficiency in wheat production across major cropping zones of the Punjab (Pakistan) through stochastic frontier production function with Cobb-Douglas specification has been analyzed. The mean technical efficiency of wheat production was 78.2, 82.8, 80.2 and 50.1 percent in the mixed, cotton-wheat, rice-wheat and rain-fed zones, respectively. The results signify that there is a scope to increase wheat productivity through technical efficiency improvements under existing conditions of input use and technology. In the irrigated zones, number of ploughings for land preparation, use of chemical fertilizers and number of irrigation applications contributed positively to the crop production. The inefficiency in wheat production was due to sowing of poor quality produce as seed year after year, wheat crop acreage at the farms in irrigated zones and due to incidences of technical and financial problems in both irrigated as well as rain-fed zones. While, operational farm size and farmers’ contact with extension agents in the irrigated cropping zones and education level of the farmers in the rain-fed zone were technical inefficiency decreasing farmer characteristics.
This book is the result of a great teamwork of three colleagues in form of a capstone in graduating for Masters of Public Policy and Management. It focuses in the inherent issue of fiscal decentralization in the Republic of Macedonia. Within the course of the initial period after the decentralization many major shortfalls of the central government, in the implementation of the decentralization, have been identified. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to propose a model for adequate measuring of the effects of the implemented decentralization, and to further use those results for overcoming the identified shortfalls in its implementation.