The economic transition and market globalization processes has triggered structural changes in the Macedonian agriculture. Pig producers face challenges to meet the new market requirements and regulations which cause inefficient and less competitive production compared to foreign markets. This book aims to identify the level of technical efficiency on pig farms in the Republic of Macedonia. Data Envelopment Analysis approach is used to measure the exact quantity of inputs used in the production in relation to a given quantity of output. Furthermore, the data are analysed by making comparative analyses of the managerial behaviour and other non-measurable variables that influence the efficiency. The results determine what managerial activities influence on the efficiency. They indicate the type and level of inputs that need to change and the quantity of output that need to increase for the farms to reach the same technical efficiency as the best farmers.
The theoretical characteristics of logistics and logistics systems are numerous, with specific characteristics, different implications and missions. Logistics activities in the wine industry are very important. Macedonia is a large exporter of wine. In terms of export value of agricultural products in Macedonia, wine is at the first place in terms of exports of alcoholic beverages, and at the second place immediately after the tobacco. The winemaking in Macedonia is continuously increasing, especially the last ten years. Besides the increased production, a special attention is paid to the improvement of the quality of produced wine, as well as improving conditions for growing vines, thereby obtaining quality grapes. Several factors affect this positive trend and one of them is educated staffs of vine growers and oenologists which are involved in the process. Thus, quinary logistics takes an important place in the development of vine and wine production.
This book is for all natural and water resources in the Republic of Macedonia. The natural resources of the Republic of Macedonia are characterized more with diversification than with abundance. The resources are relatively modest, but they are not a limiting factor for development. Water as a natural national wealth and a good of common interest is a dominant priority in everyday life. Water represents a factor that to some extent determines and limits the development. It is about overview of national policies and development plans in Macedonia, present status of water, water resources of the Republic of Macedonia, artificial lakes, benefit of the water resources in the Republic of Macedonia, water supply and irrigation, water pollution, the reservoirs in the Republic of Macedonia as a prerequisite for sustainability of the hydro systems, hydro systems in Republic of Macedonia, hydro accumulations in Republic of Macedonia, the impact of the anthropological factor on the microbiological pollution on the water. The R.Macedonia is a country with market-oriented economy and liberal market relations. The strategy of the economic development is based on the available resources.
With 112.5 million tonnes of production in 2009-10 India stands number one in milk production. Irrespective of the spectacular developments accomplished in dairying at national perspective, the fruits of success did not percolate down across regions and states. The productivity is quiet low in eastern part of the nation and low efficiency among farmers is one of the main reasons behind this. An attempt thus has been made here to find the economic efficiency of various categories of milch animals and the different types of practices the households follow to manage them to produce milk in eastern region of the nation. Study found that though technical efficiency among the farmers is sufficiently high but allocative efficiency was sufficiently low among farmers. Factors like herd size, ratio of variable cost to total cost, farm income are found to be the affecting factors behind efficiency.
This book is the result of a great teamwork of three colleagues in form of a capstone in graduating for Masters of Public Policy and Management. It focuses in the inherent issue of fiscal decentralization in the Republic of Macedonia. Within the course of the initial period after the decentralization many major shortfalls of the central government, in the implementation of the decentralization, have been identified. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to propose a model for adequate measuring of the effects of the implemented decentralization, and to further use those results for overcoming the identified shortfalls in its implementation.
India is a dominant player in the global market as far as turmeric is concerned. In view of the economic importance of turmeric in both national and farm economy and the problems faced by farmers in production and marketing of turmeric was analysed with the objectives of to study the economics of production of turmeric in Erode district, to analyze the factors affecting yield of turmeric and study the factor use efficiency in turmeric production, to compare the marketing efficiency of different channels through which turmeric is exported, and to identify the problems faced by the farmers in production and marketing of turmeric.
Field trials were conducted at three localities during 2009 and 2010 to evaluate herbicides and their combination for effective weed control in carrot production localities in Republic of Macedonia. The weed population was consisted of annual spring and summer, and some perennial weeds. The weediness in all localities was relative high, and, depends of the year it ranged of 97.1 to 172.7 plants/m2. Herbicide efficacy evaluated 14 and 28 days after PRE and PRE+POST applications, was ranged of 42.1% (metolachlor PRE in 2010 in Bitola locality) to 99.5% (metolachlor + prometryn applied PRE in 2010 in Sveti Nikole locality). Efficacy of herbicides in control of prevailing weeds during the 2 years field trial period 14 and 28 days after PRE and PRE+POST applications was ranged between 44% and 100% in all localities. Particularly high efficacy showed combinations metolachlor + prometryn and metolachlor + linuron, respectively applied PRE which provided nearly 100% control. All applied herbicides and their combinations, except metribuzin POST showed high selectivity to carrots. Yields of the herbicides treatments reflected their efficiencies in weed control.
The study on economics of milk production was conducted in Chitwan district in 2005. The results indicated that production of milk was positively correlated with farm category, and cost of milk production was negatively correlated. The cost of milk production of small farm size category was 25 % higher than large farm size category. The feed cost (31.78%) was the major factor for explaining the cost of milk production. Benefit- cost ratio of large category was highest (1.42) followed by medium (1.33) and small (1.23) farm size category. There was significant difference in gross margin (p-0.005) among the farm categories. The higher marketing efficiency was found in personal selling followed by private and DDC marketing. The milk price (p-0.020), market security (p-0.022), and quick payment (p-0.048) were significant reasons for determining location of selling. In more than 60 percent of the production activities, involvement of women was higher than men, where as in marketing activities like milk selling, marketing training involvement of male was higher.
Crop yield can be increased by expanding crop area, raising yield per unit area or by growing more crops per year. However, in our context, where financial resources of small-holder farmers are limited and farm technologies are scarce and relatively expensive, improving level of technical efficiency of individual farmers is the cheapest method. In the study the estimated mean level of technical efficiency of sorghum producers was about 79%. This reveals that in the short run there exists a possibility to increase the level of sorghum output by about 21% using the existing local practices and technical knowledge of the relatively efficient farmers. Off-farm occupation has negative effect on the level of technical efficiency. Middle age farmers are also relatively more efficient than the youngsters and old farmers. Weeding and extension contact also affect technical efficiency positively and significantly. Hence, the result conveys important message for readers who closely work with small-holder farmers how to improve productivity by applying low external inputs.
Technical efficiency in wheat production across major cropping zones of the Punjab (Pakistan) through stochastic frontier production function with Cobb-Douglas specification has been analyzed. The mean technical efficiency of wheat production was 78.2, 82.8, 80.2 and 50.1 percent in the mixed, cotton-wheat, rice-wheat and rain-fed zones, respectively. The results signify that there is a scope to increase wheat productivity through technical efficiency improvements under existing conditions of input use and technology. In the irrigated zones, number of ploughings for land preparation, use of chemical fertilizers and number of irrigation applications contributed positively to the crop production. The inefficiency in wheat production was due to sowing of poor quality produce as seed year after year, wheat crop acreage at the farms in irrigated zones and due to incidences of technical and financial problems in both irrigated as well as rain-fed zones. While, operational farm size and farmers’ contact with extension agents in the irrigated cropping zones and education level of the farmers in the rain-fed zone were technical inefficiency decreasing farmer characteristics.
Against a background of mass movements of the youths and educated members of the labour force away from the rural farm sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, with far reaching implications on both the rural and the urban sectors, the study being reported was conducted to examine the patterns, determinants and production efficiency outcomes of rural out-migration and off- farm labour supply by members of rural farm households in southwest Nigeria. The study found that 38.7 percent of the economically active individuals born into the sampled rural farm families have migrated to urban centres, while 47.3 percent of those left in the rural sector participate in off- farm activities. Off-farm employment accounted for 34.3 percent of the typical rural farm household members' work efforts, 21.7 percent of the household income, while remittances from the out-migrants accounted for 9.9 percent the household income. However, while income from off-farm activities significantly enhanced production efficiency of the farm households, remittances received from rural out- migrants did not.
Livestock plays an important role in the economy of Mizopam as crop production is still traditional. Pig occupies a unique place, as pig rearing is considered to be the most encouraging and appropriate livestock enterprise. The present study was undertaken to find out management practices, source of information, and adoption of technologies by the pig farmers in Mizoram. From the study it is found that pigs were reared in stalls. The space provided to the adult pigs was inadequate. The farmers preferred cross-bred animals to rear. The overall adoption level of the farmers on pig rearing was partial. The adoptions of recommended technologies were associated with age, education, operational land holding, farm size, income from piggery, social participation. Personal localite sources of information were regularly used for farm information. Television, Radio and Newspaper were preferred sources of information under mass media. On-farm Demonstration was the mostly preferred by the farmers. The high market price of piglets and feeds, lack of training on pig rearing, lack of awareness amongst farmers, etc as major constraints in pig rearing.
This study suggested that for obtaining the optimum yield of principal crops, the use crucial inputs like manures and N, P and K fertilizers could be increased and use of bullock labour and human labour could be decreased by use of mechanical means such as tractor, sprayers, dusters and harvester in order to reduce the cost of cultivation and increase efficiency of resources. The input costs were substantially increased by four to five times over output prices because of inflationary pressure on input costs. Therefore, the support price policy for food-grains should help the farmers in increasing farm income mainly through output price rise, but it has failed in reducing the variability in gross income. There is no parity between farm harvest prices to input prices, farm harvest prices to cost of production and income to cost of production in cereals, pulses and oil seeds with exception of gram, sunflower and groundnut for income to cost of production. There were seasonal fluctuations in arrivals and prices with a negative relationship with exception of gram, groundnut and sunflower in Solapur market and wheat, gram and groundnut in Pune market.
The study uses data collected in 2009/2010 irrigated crop production year from a total of 130 farm households selected from three PAs of Fogera woreda of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The purpose of the study is to estimate Technical and Allocative Efficiency and to identify principal factors that cause efficiency differentials. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used to estimate technical and allocative efficiency of smallholder farmers in irrigated vegetables production. The DEA model shows that the mean technical, allocative and economic efficiency of farmers in the production of vegetables are 0.83, 0.51 and 0.42 respectively. The study suggests that attention must be given to access to credit, extension service, training of household head, and education which are found to be significant determinants of efficiency level. The result also indicates more fragmented land increases cost of production.
Most analysis show the fact that the GDP of the Republic of Macedonia (RM) would have noted significantly higher amounts and rates of real growth, if the transitional development cycle and the numerous shocks that the Macedonian economy had in the past 18-19 years wouldn’t have caused big structural disorders in the economy, and be extremely manifested in the permanent growth of the number of unemployed people. Those people had to provide their existence in different possible manners, and primarily through inclusion in the different channels of the so – called „grey” economy. There is a wide spread opinion in The Republic of Macedonia that “grey” economy is pretty high. According to some estimations it amounts about 35% of GDP. Such high “grey” economy has a direct influence to the main economic indicators, categories and instruments for macroeconomic regulation: GDP value can not be precisely measured, there are problems in formulating and realization of macroeconomic policy instruments (fiscal policy, monetary policy, social policy, foreign-trade policy) etc. Because of its high value, “grey“ economy is challenging and serious danger for macroeconomic planning and regulation.