This book is focused on the seismic vulnerability assessment methods, applied to existing buildings, describing several behaviors and new approaches for assessment on a large scale (urban area). It is clear that the majority of urban centers are composed of old buildings, designed according to concepts and rules that are inadequate to the seismic context. How to assess the vulnerability of existing buildings is an essential step to improve the management of seismic risk and its prevention policy. After some key reminders, this book describes seismic vulnerability methods applied to a large number of structures (buildings and bridges) in moderate (France, Switzerland) and strong seismic prone regions (Italy, Greece). Contents 1. Seismic Vulnerability of Existing Buildings: Observational and Mechanical Approaches for Application in Urban Areas, Sergio Lagomarsino and Serena Cattari. 2. Mechanical Methods: Fragility Curves and Pushover Analysis, Caterina Negulescu and Pierre Gehl. 3. Seismic Vulnerability and Loss Assessment for Buildings in Greece, Andreas J. Kappos. 4. Experimental Method: Contribution of Ambient Vibration Recordings to the Vulnerability Assessment, Clotaire Michel and Philippe Guéguen. 5. Numerical Model: Simplified Strategies for Vulnerability Seismic Assessment of Existing Structures, Cédric Desprez, Panagiotis Kotronis and Stéphane Grange. 6. Approach Based on the Risk Used in Switzerland, Pierino Lestuzzi. 7. Preliminary Evaluation of the Seismic Vulnerability of Existing Bridges, Denis Davi. About the Authors Philippe Guéguen is a Senior IFSTTAR Researcher at ISTerre, Joseph Fourier University Grenoble 1, France
This book is the first comprehensive and methodologically rigorous analysis of earthquake occurrence. Models based on the theory of the stochastic multidimensional point processes are employed to approximate the earthquake occurrence pattern and evaluate its parameters. The Author shows that most of these parameters have universal values. These results help explain the classical earthquake distributions: Omori's law and the Gutenberg-Richter relation. The Author derives a new negative-binomial distribution for earthquake numbers, instead of the Poisson distribution, and then determines a fractal correlation dimension for spatial distributions of earthquake hypocenters. The book also investigates the disorientation of earthquake focal mechanisms and shows that it follows the rotational Cauchy distribution. These statistical and mathematical advances make it possible to produce quantitative forecasts of earthquake occurrence. In these forecasts earthquake rate in time, space, and focal mechanism orientation is evaluated.
Earthquake Resistant Design and Risk Reduction, 2nd edition is based upon global research and development work over the last 50 years or more, and follows the author’s series of three books Earthquake Resistant Design, 1st and 2nd editions (1977 and 1987), and Earthquake Risk Reduction (2003). Many advances have been made since the 2003 edition of Earthquake Risk Reduction, and there is every sign that this rate of progress will continue apace in the years to come. Compiled from the author’s wide design and research experience in earthquake engineering and engineering seismology, this key text provides an excellent treatment of the complex multidisciplinary process of earthquake resistant design and risk reduction. New topics include the creation of low-damage structures and the spatial distribution of ground shaking near large fault ruptures. Sections on guidance for developing countries, response of buildings to differential settlement in liquefaction, performance-based and displacement-based design and the architectural aspects of earthquake resistant design are heavily revised. This book: Outlines individual national weaknesses that contribute to earthquake risk to people and property Calculates the seismic response of soils and structures, using the structural continuum “Subsoil – Substructure – Superstructure – Non–structure” Evaluates the effectiveness of given design and construction procedures for reducing casualties and financial losses Provides guidance on the key issue of choice of structural form Presents earthquake resistant design methods for the main four structural materials – steel, concrete, reinforced masonry and timber – as well as for services equipment, plant and non-structural architectural components Contains a chapter devoted to problems involved in improving (retrofitting) the existing built environment This book is an invaluable reference and guiding tool to practising civil and structural engineers and architects, researchers and postgraduate students in earthquake engineering and engineering seismology, local governments and risk management officials.
The first edition of Assessment Clear and Simple quickly became the essential go-to guide for anyone who participates in the assessment process in higher education. With the increased pressure to perform assessment to demonstrate accountability, Assessment Clear and Simple is needed more than ever. This second edition of the classic resource offers a concise, step-by-step guide that helps make assessment simple, cost-efficient, and useful to an institution. It contains effective strategies for meeting the requirements of accreditation agencies, legislatures, review boards, and others, while emphasizing and showing how to move from data to actions that improve student learning. This thoroughly revised and updated edition includes many new or expanded features, including: Illustrative examples drawn from the author's experience consulting with more than 350 institutions A basic, no-frills assessment plan for departments and for general education Tips on how to integrate portfolios and e-portfolios into the assessment process Suggestions for using rubrics and alternatives to rubrics, including doing assessment for multidisciplinary work Clear instructions on how to construct a coherent institution-wide assessment system and explain it to accreditors Ideas for assigning responsibility for general education assessment Strategies for gathering information about departmental assessment while keeping the departmental workload manageable Information on how to manage assessment in times of budgetary cutbacks Praise for the Second Edition of Assessment Clear and Simple «Walvoord's approach to assessment is wonderfully straightforward; it is also effective in facilitating faculty engagement in assessment. We've applied a number of her methods to our campus assessment efforts with success. This book makes assessment both manageable and useful in improving and enhancing student learning.»—Martha L. A. Stassen, director of assessment, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and president, New England Educational Assessment Network (NEEAN) «Walvoord's work clearly presents the basics for getting started in assessment of student learning while honestly addressing the complexities of assessment when driven by faculty passion for student learning. This book is a valuable resource for the novice as well as the developing experts who are leading their institutions in academic assessment.»—Bobbi Allen, faculty assessment director, Delta College
Helps teachers understand research evidence in language assessment for students aged 5-18, and to develop an ability to design, implement and critically evaluate language assessment, with reference to language frameworks and standards for assessment in school education.
The second edition of this comprehensive study of recent Japanese history now includes the author's expert assessment of the effects of the earthquake and tsunami, including the political and environmental consequences of the Fukushima reactor meltdown. Fully updated to include a detailed assessment of the aftermath of the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami Shows how the nuclear crisis at Fukushima was an accident waiting to happen Includes detailed discussion of Japan's energy policy, now in flux after the mishandling of the Fukushima crisis Analyzes Japan's 'Lost Decades', why jobs and families are less stable, environmental policies, immigration, the aging society, the US alliance, the imperial family, and the 'yakuza' criminal gangs Authoritative coverage of Japanese history over the last two decades, one of the country's most tumultuous periods
A Teacher’s Guide to Classroom Assessment is a comprehensive guide that shows step-by-step how to effectively integrate assessment into the classroom. Written for both new and seasoned teachers, this important book offers a practical aid for developing assessment skills and strategies, building assessment literacy, and ultimately improving student learning. Based on extensive research, this book is filled with illustrative, down-to-earth examples of how classroom assessment works in classrooms where assessment drives the instruction. The authors present the Classroom Assessment Cycle—Clarifying learning targets, Collecting assessment evidence, Analyzing assessment data, and Modifying instruction based upon assessment data—that demonstrates how one assessment action must flow into the next to be effective. Each chapter details the kinds of assessment evidence that are the most useful for determining student achievement and provides instruction in the analysis of assessment data.