Biosensor employing organelles in immobilized form are widely used in environmental monitoring. These immobilized organelles play vital role in sensitivity, accuracy, and stability of the biosensor system. Some of the organelle used for immobilization is whole cell, protein, enzyme and DNA. Traditionally biosensor used whole cell from one individual strain of microorganism. This concept limits the biosensor detection to certain specific samples alone. Detection of the content of the samples depends on the properties of the immobilized microbial cell. For detection of broad range of samples, novel biosenor using mixed microbial cultures is being designed in this dissertation.
The concern about global warming effects by continuous exploitation of non renewable fossil fuels and scarcity of electricity generation accelerates the urge for searching alternative source of energy. Development of Microbial fuel cell using microbes present in waste water is the novel approach to treat this hurdle. Apart from biopower generation, it acts as a biosensor. Microbes metabolizes the organic matter present in waste water during the process electricity is generated. Within course of time the wastewater is treated with Chlorella vulgaris for the removal of phosphate for about 50 percent present in water. The amount of electricity generated has increased. The biomass thus produced, can be used for biofuel generation. For further purification of this treated wastewater, a novel method of treating it with Strychnos potatorum (chilla ginjalu) seeds is attempted.
The growing demand for point-of-care analytical systems requires novel miniaturised and sophisticated sensor systems. This book describes the development of an all-polymer biosensor platform for electrochemical detection of analytes from liquid media. Conductive polymers were employed for the electrical structures, while aptamers were used as recognition elements. The wide range of applicability of this sensor is shown on the basis of three different analytical challenges.
Nowadays,detection of a single-base polymorphism is thought to be the key for diagnosis of about 400 genetic diseases and,realization of personalized medicine in order to develop therapeutics.The other hand,the integration of new emerging nanomaterials(graphene)with sensors and devices have revealed an enormous potential for the future application of highly sensitive and selective DNA biosensors.All these approaches open up the routes for genetic researchers to understand the progression and early screening of diseases,or forensic analysis by tailoring the electrical properties of graphene,which make the controlled design of these sensors essential.In this research study, numerical model of the graphene-based liquid-gated sensors with DNA sensing application is developed to help in understanding the sensing mechanism of these sensors which is the matter of dispute these days.The results are compared with the experimental work and an acceptable agreement is observed. We found that numerical modeling needs optimization to be closer to the realistic results.So, particle swarm optimization technique is used to achieve a more accurate and reliable model for DNA hybridization detection.
Biosensors are nowadays a powerful tool to enable the detection of specific biological interactions and to evaluate the concentration dependence in the response. A biosensor usually consists of three different parts: the sample to be measured, the transducer and the electronic system that amplifies the signal, analyzes the data and brings a result to the final user. When the analyte interacts with the bioreceptor, the transducer sends a signal that is processed by the electronics. All this process occurs in a efficient, quick, cheap, simple and specific way. Optical biosensors are the most powerful ones for investigating processes at the solid/liquid interface. Among them the grating coupler is immune to electromagnetic interferences, pushes the sensitivity to levels even higher than other techniques and allows for the direct monitoring of macromolecular adsorption. Taking advantage of the last advances in nanotechnology, this book studies the versatility of an Optical Grating Coupler Biosensor. The design of new grating sensor chips is investigated, a new calibration technique for the sensors is proposed and different biomedical scenarios are tested.
Cowpea and pigeon pea are species of legumes grown locally in Sudan and they are available all over the year. They are cheap, good sources of protein, carbohydrates and minerals. The flours of cowpea and pigeon pea are good sources of protein, carbohydrates and minerals, so they can be used in the preparation of different types of culture media for the isolation of different species of bacteria and Candida albicans as shown in this study. The best result revealed by the combination in the isolation of the enterobacteriaceae which is comparable to the media in general use.
A new approach of Biosensor for Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) that works only when the waste in your abdomen is over the threshold -not throughout night time-. The solid state chemical/bio ISFET sensor, benefiting from advanced electronic circuit techniques, is now enjoying a revival after 37 years of staying in the shadows. However, this young species needed a lot of nurturing to ensure it reaches maturity and flourishes. Looking back over the work of this research and looking forward to future developments, the book elucidates mandatory steps that will enhance the chances of success of this biosensor, ISFET.
Heroine is synthetic derivative of morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from unripe seeds or capsules of Papaver somniferum (poppy plant). The use of heroine and morphine as a recreational drug has reached epidemic proportion, largely because of increased availability. The currently used techniques for the detection of opiate drugs are time consuming, expensive and not amenable to on-site application. This book describes about development of a highly sensitive, fast, reliable, field applicable and cost effective immunoassay/ immunobiosensor for the detection of opiate drugs: morphine and heroin, the most addictive and commonly abused narcotics. Various types of immunoassay are described in this book using enzyme, fluorophore, carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles and phage display detection which shows detection limit in the ppb range without the aid of any sophisticated instrument.
Use of synthetic pesticides has been increasing exponentially over the last few decades. These pesticides on one hand increase the crop yield but in turn adversely affects the microbial flora and fauna. They not only affect the environment but also the persons who come in direct contact. Traditionally bacteria were used for the degradation of these hazardous chemicals but nowadays the potential of fungi is also being explored. This book presents a comparative analysis of degradation of neurotoxin pesticide, Monocrotophos by five different fungal strains belonging to four different genera. The degradation efficiency was correlated with the growth of fungal strains and degradation kinetics was premediated. Quantitative analysis of residual monocrotophos was done by using HPTLC and FTIR. By products of degradation; phosphatases, inorganic phosphates and ammonia were also estimated. The analysis should help shed some light on the enormous potential of diverse fungal community for the degradation of recalcitrant chemicals. It would also be helpful for researchers to design novel organisms, best suited for the purpose of degradation by using various tools and techniques.
In this technique, the production of molecular framework and polymer is done using meta acrylic acid monomers, which are formed via covalence connection between meta acrylic acid monomers (MAA) of white polymer. Here also hydrogenic connection between exotoxin amino acid and meta acrylic acid is made that would function as the selective absorption for that. Then in the second stage, based on the bacterial antibody connection to nanoparticel, a sensor was used. In this part of the research, as the basis for absorption for the recognition of bacterial toxin, medium sized silica nanoparticles of 10 nano meter in form of solid powder were utilized with Notrino brand. Then the suspension produced from agent-linked nanosilica which was connected to bacterial antibody was positioned near the samples of distilled water, that were contaminated with Staphylococcus Aureus bacterial toxin with the density of 10-3, so that in case any toxin exists in the sample, a connection between toxin antigen and antibody would be formed. Finally, the light absorption related to the connection of antigen to the particle attached antibody was measured using spectrophotometry.
This book describes theoretical and modeling study of optical waveguide design, in straight and branched waveguide for ion-exchanged and silicon based materials. Physical parameters involved in the fabrication have been modeled to produce the highest possible evanescent field based on the material that they are using. Apart from that, optical properties such as polarization, beam spot size and wavelength are also studied to monitor their effects on the evanescent field. The compilation of research papers in this book can be used to fabricate an integrated waveguide with optimized condition. These simulation results demonstrate, that evanescent wave based, integrated optical devices for trapping are feasible and can be optimized; paving the way for real-life application devices to be realized.
Microbial fuel cell technology is an emerging technology with the potential to support renewable energy production and promote sustainable development. However, high cost of materials has militated against large scale implementation of this technology, especially when considering the high cost of Nafion used as proton exchange membrane. The successful application of Plaster of Paris slurry(gypsum) as proton exchange membrane as highlighted in this work, suggests the possibility of reduced cost in the development of this technology. Also, the architectural design described in this work makes this technology accessible to professional and non professionals interested in this research area. In addition, non governmental organizations (NGO's) interested in the development of renewable technology for developing countries will find this simple and cost effective design very appealing.
The demand for novel renewable energy sources, together with the new findings on bacterial electron transport mechanisms and the progress in microbial fuel cell design, have raised a noticeable interest in microbial power generation. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an electrochemical device that converts organic substrates into electricity via catalytic conversion by microorganism. It has represented a continuously growing research field during the past few years. This book presents how it is possible to optimize the properties and design of the micro-size microbial fuel cell for maximum efficiency by understanding the MFC system. So it involved designing, building and testing a miniature microbial fuel cell using a new species of microorganisms that promises high efficiency and long lifetime. The new device offer unique advantages of fast start-up, high sensitivity and superior microfluidic control over the measured microenvironment, which makes them good candidates for rapid screening of electrode materials, bacterial strains and growth media.
Treatment of Microbial Contaminants in Potable Water Supplies,
Biosensors are analytical devices for selective detection of an analyte or a group of analytes that combine biological material with a physicochemical detector, yielding a measurable signal. Biosensors are used in various fields of human activity, including environmental and clinical analyses, food analyses and control of industrial processes. Most efforts in biosensor studies have been focused on the fabrication of various combinations of biological components and measuring systems; less attention has been paid to the interpretation of factors, affecting the formation of biosensor output signal and the problems of biosensor calibration. So in many cases only a fraction of potentially available information is taken into consideration, making the biosensor analyses less reliable than they actually could be. The present work is an effort to solve some of the problems in biosensor signal analysis, proposing a new approach to signal modelling and calibration of biosensors, based on oxidoreductases; just to promote the application of these biosensors for on-line analyses.