Biosensor employing organelles in immobilized form are widely used in environmental monitoring. These immobilized organelles play vital role in sensitivity, accuracy, and stability of the biosensor system. Some of the organelle used for immobilization is whole cell, protein, enzyme and DNA. Traditionally biosensor used whole cell from one individual strain of microorganism. This concept limits the biosensor detection to certain specific samples alone. Detection of the content of the samples depends on the properties of the immobilized microbial cell. For detection of broad range of samples, novel biosenor using mixed microbial cultures is being designed in this dissertation.
The concern about global warming effects by continuous exploitation of non renewable fossil fuels and scarcity of electricity generation accelerates the urge for searching alternative source of energy. Development of Microbial fuel cell using microbes present in waste water is the novel approach to treat this hurdle. Apart from biopower generation, it acts as a biosensor. Microbes metabolizes the organic matter present in waste water during the process electricity is generated. Within course of time the wastewater is treated with Chlorella vulgaris for the removal of phosphate for about 50 percent present in water. The amount of electricity generated has increased. The biomass thus produced, can be used for biofuel generation. For further purification of this treated wastewater, a novel method of treating it with Strychnos potatorum (chilla ginjalu) seeds is attempted.
Biomedical electronics and instruments, equipment, diagnostic & detection tools success based on the success of high sensitive biosensors invention and development. Biosensors are the active electronic, semiconductor electronics, optoelectronics or other technologies related devices which sense biological signal from membrane in the form of antibodies, antigens, bacteria''s, viruses, glucose, oxygen, pH etc called signal/stimuli/receptor at the contact of membrane and biosensor with transducer along with biological sensing element called “ion-electron-interfacing” from where signal convert into detectable electrical signals through transduction principles and measured at computerized electronic signal processing system. This monograph strongly related only about optoelectronic biosensor, in which discussed investigated evanescent wave optical fiber biosensor is one of the strong light carry biological information sensation and high speed detection sensor. Book deal with review, research and fundamental modeling.
Demand for biosensor research applications is growing steadily. According to a new report by Frost & Sullivan, the biosensor market is expected to reach $14.42 billion by 2016. Clinical diagnostic applications continue to be the largest market for biosensors, and this demand is likely to continue through 2016 and beyond. Biosensor technology for use in clinical diagnostics, however, requires translational research that moves bench science and theoretical knowledge toward marketable products. Despite the high volume of academic research to date, only a handful of biomedical devices have become viable commercial applications. Academic research must increase its focus on practical uses for biosensors. This book is an example of this increased focus, and discusses work to advance microfluidic-based protein biosensor technologies for practical use in clinical diagnostics.
The book incorporates in all ten important topics of recent interest such as prospects, perspectives and scope of Microbial Biotechnology, screening, improvement and development of strains, production of food, feed, and other products, Bio fertilizers, Bio pesticides, detoxification and cleaning of environment, non-conventional sources of energy, microbial technology applications in the fields of Pharmaceutical industry and Medicine, in the revolution of Agriculture and control of Biological warfare. I am confident that book would be of immense value to enrich knowledge of Microbial bio technology in particular and Microbiology in general
Biosensors are analytical devices for selective detection of an analyte or a group of analytes that combine biological material with a physicochemical detector, yielding a measurable signal. Biosensors are used in various fields of human activity, including environmental and clinical analyses, food analyses and control of industrial processes. Most efforts in biosensor studies have been focused on the fabrication of various combinations of biological components and measuring systems; less attention has been paid to the interpretation of factors, affecting the formation of biosensor output signal and the problems of biosensor calibration. So in many cases only a fraction of potentially available information is taken into consideration, making the biosensor analyses less reliable than they actually could be. The present work is an effort to solve some of the problems in biosensor signal analysis, proposing a new approach to signal modelling and calibration of biosensors, based on oxidoreductases; just to promote the application of these biosensors for on-line analyses.
This book provides an overview of scientific activities of the scientists from Laboratory for Marine Microbiology (Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries in Split, Croatia) and collaborators during the last 15 years, which are presented through the number of case studies performed in different marine habitats of the Adriatic Sea. The main topics of the book are: (1) Microbial community structure which provides an overview of the main components of the microbial community; (2) Microbial food web which is focused on the functional aspect of microbial communities, which includes studying the interactions and the carbon flux through the microbial food web; (3) Extreme habitats which presents the research of microbial communities in the two extreme habitats anchialine caves and eutrophic meromictic saline lake; and (4) the final chapter which is devoted to microbial food web as an indicator of marine environment status in the perspective of Marine Strategy Framework Directive, as one of the most important legal documents of the European Community in the field of marine ecosystems protection.
The growing demand for point-of-care analytical systems requires novel miniaturised and sophisticated sensor systems. This book describes the development of an all-polymer biosensor platform for electrochemical detection of analytes from liquid media. Conductive polymers were employed for the electrical structures, while aptamers were used as recognition elements. The wide range of applicability of this sensor is shown on the basis of three different analytical challenges.
Besides infectious diseases result in innumerable deaths world over, microbial resistance to antimicrobials put additional pressure of increased illness severity, duration, mortality and health costs including costs on prevention and control measures and development of alternate drugs. It makes advances in therapy ineffective, more complicated and more expensive based on scope of problem. Hence, there is an urgency to find out ways to address the issue of microbial resistance. To meet the challenges of microbial resistance to antimicrobials, we must improve our understanding of microbial world, evolution of their resistances, mechanism of transmissibility of resistant organisms, quality of research, surveillance and survey to find out remedies to prevent, eliminate and control the resistance. This particular book tried to put flash light on all these topics in depth.
This book ‘An Approach to Microbial Biotechnology: A Laboratory Handbook’ covers microbial biotechnology techniques resolving the cumbersome procedures of microbial identification. Various aspects of comparative biochemical, phenotypical, chemotaxonomic and molecular analysis for appropriate identification of cultured microorganisms have been included. The techniques presented in this book are simple, reliable and reproducible and are fundamental to most microbiological studies. This book encompasses microbial handling techniques evaluated and recommended by year-long practical experiences.
Most books dedicated to the issues of bio-sensing are organized by the well-known scheme of a biosensor. In this book, the authors have deliberately decided to break away from the conventional way of treating biosensing research by uniquely addressing biomolecule immobilization methods on a solid surface, fluidics issues and biosensing-related transduction techniques, rather than focusing simply on the biosensor. The aim is to provide a contemporary snapshot of the biosensing landscape without neglecting the seminal references or products where needed, following the downscaling (from the micro- to the nanoscale) of biosensors and their respective best known applications. To conclude, a brief overview of the most popularized nanodevices applied to biology is given, before comparing biosensor criteria in terms of targeted applications.
Quantification of rumen microbial biomass synthesis assumes significance as rumen fermentation of feed organic matter and microbial biomass synthesis meet 70-85% of energy and 70-100% of protein needs of ruminants. Therefore, it is important to understand the feed factors influencing higher microbial biomass in the rumen. Determination of feed factors affecting microbial biomass synthesis in vivo is expensive. Hence, the rumen in vitro gas production technique used for feed energy evaluation in ruminant feedstuffs was adopted to assess microbial biomass production potential of feedstuffs based on the concept of partitioning of fermented organic matter between microbial biomass and fermentation waste products. Therefore, in this study, diets were formulated to differ in differ in microbial biomass synthesis potential as partitioning factor (PF) based on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and tested them in vivo by measuring feed intake, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, purine excretion in urine and production performance in growing lambs and lactating cows.
The demand for novel renewable energy sources, together with the new findings on bacterial electron transport mechanisms and the progress in microbial fuel cell design, have raised a noticeable interest in microbial power generation. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an electrochemical device that converts organic substrates into electricity via catalytic conversion by microorganism. It has represented a continuously growing research field during the past few years. This book presents how it is possible to optimize the properties and design of the micro-size microbial fuel cell for maximum efficiency by understanding the MFC system. So it involved designing, building and testing a miniature microbial fuel cell using a new species of microorganisms that promises high efficiency and long lifetime. The new device offer unique advantages of fast start-up, high sensitivity and superior microfluidic control over the measured microenvironment, which makes them good candidates for rapid screening of electrode materials, bacterial strains and growth media.
A new approach of Biosensor for Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) that works only when the waste in your abdomen is over the threshold -not throughout night time-. The solid state chemical/bio ISFET sensor, benefiting from advanced electronic circuit techniques, is now enjoying a revival after 37 years of staying in the shadows. However, this young species needed a lot of nurturing to ensure it reaches maturity and flourishes. Looking back over the work of this research and looking forward to future developments, the book elucidates mandatory steps that will enhance the chances of success of this biosensor, ISFET.
This book aims towards the introduction of nanobiosensor technology and its extensive application in the biomedical detection of clinically important analytes such as; cancer cells, anticancer drugs, proteins etc. The fabrication of the biosensor system is described using various conducting polymers and nanomaterial composites. The content of the book also describes the step by step characterization of biosensor surface using various analytical techniques such as; x-ray photon spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy etc. The real sample applications of the biosensor has been explained in detail using various relevant examples. This book is an attempt to explain the graduate students to start up their experiments and also help them to conceptualize ideas and its representation.