Decision making by the aircrafts services of the international airport, which provides for intensive traffic of aircraft and their ground handling, becomes a very topical issue. If earlier it was believed that the intensity is provided only by the number of runways, nowadays a large accumulation of aircraft on the airport platform-field creates equally complex difficulties in comparison with aircraft take-offs and landings. Solving such problems with the use of «crisp methods» of queuing theory gives little. This article deals with modern «fuzzy methods» based on simulation modeling and fuzzy logic.
Statistical data are not always precise numbers, or vectors, or categories. Real data are frequently what is called fuzzy. Examples where this fuzziness is obvious are quality of life data, environmental, biological, medical, sociological and economics data. Also the results of measurements can be best described by using fuzzy numbers and fuzzy vectors respectively. Statistical analysis methods have to be adapted for the analysis of fuzzy data. In this book, the foundations of the description of fuzzy data are explained, including methods on how to obtain the characterizing function of fuzzy measurement results. Furthermore, statistical methods are then generalized to the analysis of fuzzy data and fuzzy a-priori information. Key Features: Provides basic methods for the mathematical description of fuzzy data, as well as statistical methods that can be used to analyze fuzzy data. Describes methods of increasing importance with applications in areas such as environmental statistics and social science. Complements the theory with exercises and solutions and is illustrated throughout with diagrams and examples. Explores areas such quantitative description of data uncertainty and mathematical description of fuzzy data. This work is aimed at statisticians working with fuzzy logic, engineering statisticians, finance researchers, and environmental statisticians. It is written for readers who are familiar with elementary stochastic models and basic statistical methods.
Tested and proven strategy to develop optimal automated process fault analyzers Process fault analyzers monitor process operations in order to identify the underlying causes of operational problems. Several diagnostic strategies exist for automating process fault analysis; however, automated fault analysis is still not widely used within the processing industries due to problems of cost and performance as well as the difficulty of modeling process behavior at needed levels of detail. In response, this book presents the method of minimal evidence (MOME), a model-based diagnostic strategy that facilitates the development and implementation of optimal automated process fault analyzers. MOME was created at the University of Delaware by the researchers who developed the FALCON system, a real-time, online process fault analyzer. The authors demonstrate how MOME is used to diagnose single and multiple fault situations, determine the strategic placement of process sensors, and distribute fault analyzers within large processing systems. Optimal Automated Process Fault Analysis begins by exploring the need to automate process fault analysis. Next, the book examines: Logic of model-based reasoning as used in MOME MOME logic for performing single and multiple fault diagnoses Fuzzy logic algorithms for automating MOME Distributing process fault analyzers throughout large processing systems Virtual SPC analysis and its use in FALCONEER IV Process state transition logic and its use in FALCONEER IV The book concludes with a summary of the lessons learned by employing FALCONEER IV in actual process applications, including the benefits of «intelligent supervision» of process operations. With this book as their guide, readers have a powerful new tool for ensuring the safety and reliability of any chemical processing system.
System Design for Telecommunication Gateways provides a thorough review of designing telecommunication network equipment based on the latest hardware designs and software methods available on the market. Focusing on high-end efficient designs that challenge all aspects of the system architecture, this book helps readers to understand a broader view of the system design, analyze all its most critical components, and select the parts that best fit a particular application. In many cases new technology trends, potential future developments, system flexibility and capability extensions are outlined in preparation for the longevity typical for products in the industry. Key features: Combines software and hardware aspects of the system design. Defines components and services supported by open-source and commercial basic and extended software platforms, including operating systems, middleware, security, routing, management layer and more. Focuses on disruptive technologies. Provides guidelines for developing software architectures based on multi-threaded, multi-process, multi-instance, multi-core, multi-chip, multi-blade and multi-chassis designs. Covers a number of advanced high-speed interconnect and fabric interface technologies and their commercial implementations. Presents different system form factors from compact pizza-box styles to medium and large bladed systems, including IBM BladeCenter, ATCA and microTCA-based chassis. Describes different mezzanine cards, such as PMC, PrPMC, XMC, AMC and others.
Making VHDL a simple and easy-to-use hardware description language Many engineers encountering VHDL (very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language) for the first time can feel overwhelmed by it. This book bridges the gap between the VHDL language and the hardware that results from logic synthesis with clear organisation, progressing from the basics of combinational logic, types, and operators; through special structures such as tristate buses, register banks and memories, to advanced themes such as developing your own packages, writing test benches and using the full range of synthesis types. This third edition has been substantially rewritten to include the new VHDL-2008 features that enable synthesis of fixed-point and floating-point hardware. Extensively updated throughout to reflect modern logic synthesis usage, it also contains a complete case study to demonstrate the updated features. Features to this edition include: a common VHDL subset which will work across a range of different synthesis systems, targeting a very wide range of technologies a design style that results in long design lifetimes, maximum design reuse and easy technology retargeting a new chapter on a large scale design example based on a digital filter from design objective and design process, to testing strategy and test benches a chapter on writing test benches, with everything needed to implement a test-based design strategy extensive coverage of data path design, including integer, fixed-point and floating-point arithmetic, logic circuits, shifters, tristate buses, RAMs, ROMs, state machines, and decoders Focused specifically on logic synthesis, this book is for professional hardware engineers using VHDL for logic synthesis, and digital systems designers new to VHDL but familiar with digital systems. It offers all the knowledge and tools needed to use VHDL for logic synthesis. Organised in themed chapters and with a comprehensive index, this complete reference will also benefit postgraduate students following courses on microelectronics or VLSI/ semiconductors and digital design.
With the growing complexity of personal mobile communication systems demanding higher data-rates and high levels of integration using low-cost CMOS technology, overall system performance has become more sensitive to RF analog front-end impairments. Designing integrated transceivers requires a thorough understanding of the whole transceiver chain including RF analog front-end and digital baseband. Communication system engineers have to include RF analog imperfections in their simulation benches in order to study and quantify their impact on the system performance. Here the author explores key RF analog impairments in a transceiver and demonstrates how to model their impact from a communication system design view-point. He discusses the design aspects of the front end of transceivers (both receivers and transmitters) and provides the reader with a way to optimize a complex mixed-signal platform by taking into account the characteristics of the RF/analog front-end. Key features of this book include: Practical examples illustrated by system simulation results based on WiFi and mobile WiMAX OFDM transceivers An overview of the digital estimation and compensation of the RF analog impairments such as power amplifier distortion, quadrature imbalance, and carrier and sampling frequency offsets An exposition of the challenges involved in the design of both RF analog circuits and DSP communication circuits in deep submicron CMOS technology MATLAB® codes for RF analog impairments models hosted on the companion website Uniquely the book bridges the gap between RFIC design specification needs and communication systems simulation, offering readers RF analog impairments modeling knowledge and a comprehensive approach to unifying theory and practice in system modelling. It is of great value to communication systems and DSP engineers and graduate students who design communication processing engines, RF/analog systems and IC design engineers involved in the design of communication platforms.
The training system is implemented with the use of the fuzzy classifier that represents fuzzy knowledge base, the input of which receives signals about current state of the traction rolling stock and of the environment. The results of the work allow implementing intelligent DSS in modern locomotives. This will enhance the level of safety and efficiency of driving a train.
Maximising the Benefits of Psychotherapy critiques Evidence-Based Practice and describes other approaches to improving the effectiveness of therapy, such as Practice-Based Evidence and the use of client feedback. The authors include a summary of key research findings and an accessible guide to applying these ideas to therapeutic practice. Puts forward a critique of existing research claiming that certain psychotherapy programmes are more effective than others in treating specific disorders Includes an accessible summary of key research findings, a practical introduction to a practice-based evidence approach, and a series of detailed case studies Offers a timely alternative to the prevailing wisdom in the mental health field by challenging the practical logic of the Evidence-Based Practice approach Reviews the empirical evidence examining the effects of client feedback on psychotherapy outcomes
Logic concepts are more mainstream than you may realize. There’s logic every place you look and in almost everything you do, from deciding which shirt to buy to asking your boss for a raise, and even to watching television, where themes of such shows as CSI and Numbers incorporate a variety of logistical studies. Logic For Dummies explains a vast array of logical concepts and processes in easy-to-understand language that make everything clear to you, whether you’re a college student of a student of life. You’ll find out about: Formal Logic Syllogisms Constructing proofs and refutations Propositional and predicate logic Modal and fuzzy logic Symbolic logic Deductive and inductive reasoning Logic For Dummies tracks an introductory logic course at the college level. Concrete, real-world examples help you understand each concept you encounter, while fully worked out proofs and fun logic problems encourage you students to apply what you’ve learned.
Explains for the first time how «computing with words» can aid in making subjective judgments Lotfi Zadeh, the father of fuzzy logic, coined the phrase «computing with words» (CWW) to describe a methodology in which the objects of computation are words and propositions drawn from a natural language. Perceptual Computing explains how to implement CWW to aid in the important area of making subjective judgments, using a methodology that leads to an interactive device—a «Perceptual Computer»—that propagates random and linguistic uncertainties into the subjective judgment in a way that can be modeled and observed by the judgment maker. This book focuses on the three components of a Perceptual Computer—encoder, CWW engines, and decoder—and then provides detailed applications for each. It uses interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2 FSs) and fuzzy logic as the mathematical vehicle for perceptual computing, because such fuzzy sets can model first-order linguistic uncertainties whereas the usual kind of fuzzy sets cannot. Drawing upon the work on subjective judgments that Jerry Mendel and his students completed over the past decade, Perceptual Computing shows readers how to: Map word-data with its inherent uncertainties into an IT2 FS that captures these uncertainties Use uncertainty measures to quantify linguistic uncertainties Compare IT2 FSs by using similarity and rank Compute the subsethood of one IT2 FS in another such set Aggregate disparate data, ranging from numbers to uniformly weighted intervals to nonuniformly weighted intervals to words Aggregate multiple-fired IF-THEN rules so that the integrity of word IT2 FS models is preserved Free MATLAB-based software is also available online so readers can apply the methodology of perceptual computing immediately, and even try to improve upon it. Perceptual Computing is an important go-to for researchers and students in the fields of artificial intelligence and fuzzy logic, as well as for operations researchers, decision makers, psychologists, computer scientists, and computational intelligence experts.
Digital Design of Signal Processing Systems discusses a spectrum of architectures and methods for effective implementation of algorithms in hardware (HW). Encompassing all facets of the subject this book includes conversion of algorithms from floating-point to fixed-point format, parallel architectures for basic computational blocks, Verilog Hardware Description Language (HDL), SystemVerilog and coding guidelines for synthesis. The book also covers system level design of Multi Processor System on Chip (MPSoC); a consideration of different design methodologies including Network on Chip (NoC) and Kahn Process Network (KPN) based connectivity among processing elements. A special emphasis is placed on implementing streaming applications like a digital communication system in HW. Several novel architectures for implementing commonly used algorithms in signal processing are also revealed. With a comprehensive coverage of topics the book provides an appropriate mix of examples to illustrate the design methodology. Key Features: A practical guide to designing efficient digital systems, covering the complete spectrum of digital design from a digital signal processing perspective Provides a full account of HW building blocks and their architectures, while also elaborating effective use of embedded computational resources such as multipliers, adders and memories in FPGAs Covers a system level architecture using NoC and KPN for streaming applications, giving examples of structuring MATLAB code and its easy mapping in HW for these applications Explains state machine based and Micro-Program architectures with comprehensive case studies for mapping complex applications The techniques and examples discussed in this book are used in the award winning products from the Center for Advanced Research in Engineering (CARE). Software Defined Radio, 10 Gigabit VoIP monitoring system and Digital Surveillance equipment has respectively won APICTA (Asia Pacific Information and Communication Alliance) awards in 2010 for their unique and effective designs.