A microsomal membrane bound alcohol oxidase enzyme was isolated from a hydrocarbon degrading Aspergillus terreus fungus that could oxidize short chain-,long chain-, secondary-, and aryl-alcohol substrates. High aggregating property of the protein was demonstrated by AFM, DLS and TEM analyses. Chemical analysis showed the presence of oleic acid and palmitic acid at a ratio of 2:1 in the purified protein. We have demonstrated a highly efficient method for dissociation and simultaneous deflavination of the alcohol oxidase protein using ?-ME. The potential applications of this approach on preparing apoprotein and its reassemble with FAD to a functional enzyme are envisaged in the preparation of enzyme electrodes for biosensor and biofuel cell applications. The findings obtained through this investigation have revealed many interesting facts about this novel microsomal alcohol oxidase enzyme.This investigation has opened up new avenue on the research to explore the architecture of alcohol oxidase proteins from fungal sources including their structure-function relationship and potential applications.
The main objective of this work is to provide information associated with the optical, structural and morphological properties of Si nanoparticles needed to accomplish novel applications. Chapters 1 deal with a short literature overview of the research on Si nanoparticles and introduce the state-of-the-art in the synthesis, properties and applications of Si nanoparticles. In Chapter 2, the experimental procedures for synthesizing and modifying Si nanaoparticles thin films are described. In this chapter concentrates on the description of the PLA technique for fabricating Si nanoparticles films and then discusses which diagnostic tools to examine these parameters. This leads to a natural demarcation of the analytical tools, into those for examining the spectroscopy, the structural and surface morphology properties of the deposited films. The chapter ends with a list of the instrumentation used in the experimental work. In Chapter 3, the experimental observations, calculations and explanations of the findings are discussed. Finally, the conclusions drawn in the work are presented in Chapter 4.
Organic/Medicinal chemistry plays a vital role in drug discovery and development. Synthetic organic chemistry is a powerful tool to create medicinally useful molecules by rational structure-based drug discovery approach. Innovative methodologies are greatly needed to overcome synthetic challenges and produce biologically active molecules efficiently. This book describes such novel and practical methods: (i) the development of new methodologies for the asymmetric synthesis of homotropinone and tropane alkaloids such as cocaine using enantiopure sulfinimines; and (ii) Stereoselective synthesis of conformationally constrained novel proline analogs (methanoprolines) and pyrrolidine analogs (methanopyrrolidines) including their biological applications. This research work is highly significant to scholars working in the fields of Organic, Medicinal, and Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
An exact solution of physical systems has a great importance. Especially, in the case of Schrodinger equation there is only a few selected problems that can be exactly solvable. In this thesis work authors have developed an algebraic approach for the treatment of time-independent Schrodinger equation with constant/non-constant masses within the frame of non-relativistic quantum theory. The model has been successfully applied in various fields of physics involving exactly/approximately solvable potentials such as non-central potentials, scattering theory and quantum systems with position-dependent masses in arbitrary dimensions. This model was then extended for the relativistic considerations in the light of Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations involving only bound quantum states.
With the advent of ubiquitous computing environments it has become increasingly important for applications to take full advantage of Context aware computing to increase the satisfaction of the users in context aware environment services. Also with the increasing amount of research on Interactive Context Aware Applications like Context Aware TV, Context Aware Mobile, Context Aware Living Room, etc, users are interacting with them in an ever more convenient way. Currently, the programming of context-aware applications is complex and laborious. Even though the number of context aware applications is increasing day by day along with the users, till today there is no generic modeling and programming paradigm for context aware applications. This situation could be remedied by design and developing the appropriate modeling as a base for context aware programming paradigm. The book discusses the basic version of different types of proposed context oriented modeling approach for facilitating the programming of user context aware applications or in general context aware applications. Each type of modeling technique is explained using the proposed set of graphical notations and diagrams.
In this book,an original theoretical, numerical and simulation based realistic study of metamaterial loaded circular patch antenna has been described. Initially, basics of metamaterials and patch antennas have been discussed. Later,a novel technique to achieve multi-band performance in both reduced and conventional sized microstrip circular patch antennas loaded with metamaterial has been shown with mathematical derivation. Incorporation of symmetric slotting concept with the concept of additional mode modification in both ENG and MNG metamaterial loaded circular patch antennas have been shown. The use of metamaterial causes unconventional mode modification, whereas symmetrical slotting not only introduces another band but also improves the gain by around 1 dB of unconventional mode for MNG loaded antenna. In the first part of our research work,we have reported both dual and triple band conventional sized circular patch antenna partially loaded with ENG metamaterial.Later,both dual and triple band conventional sized circular patch antenna partially loaded with MNG metamaterials have been shown.We hope that our research will pave the way for a lot of new researchs in antenna system.
Novel methodology developments and applications of a variety of spectroscopic and spatially resolved NMR experiments are presented here. NMR has poor sensitivity, especially for rare spins. We have developed novel relaxation optimized double quantum filtered transition selective experiments to improve the sensitivity of rare spin correlation spectroscopy: Low Abundance Single transition correlation SpectroscopY (LASSY) in direct detection mode and 1H Indirect detected Carbon Low Abundance Single transition correlation Spectroscopy (HICLASS) in the indirect detection mode. These approaches typically halve the measurement time to produce a given sensitivity, in comparison to INADEQUATE CR and ADEQUATE respectively. They may be applied to 13C, 29Si, Sn isotopes, 183W, 77Se, etc. Secondly, the time evolution of multiple quantum coherences under spin lock has been studied in spin-1/2 A2X2 systems, and is shown to result in ‘amplified’ homonuclear scalar couplings. Further, the utility of spatially resolved NMR, ie, MRI and MRS is demonstrated for electrochemical applications such as membrane permeability studies. Finally, flow field imaging of an H2-O2 fuel cell under load is presented
This comprehensive text on chromatic applications of birefringent networks is designed primarily for research works on birefringence, various achromatic retarder combinations, variable retarders and birefringent filters. The book also sums up different birefringent devices used for making a birefringent network. Written with research-centered approach, the text provides a guide to various avenues which might be explored in future.
As the topic says "ISOLATION, PRODUCTION, PURIFICATION, ASSAY& CHARACTERIZATION OF RECOMBINANT CHOLESTEROL OXIDASE FROM NATIVE Brevibacterium sp." The objective of this study is to isolate extracellular cholesterol oxidase (CHO) producing microorganisms to obtain an abundant source of cholesterol oxidase (CHO) for industrial and medicinal needs. Cholesterol oxidase (CHO) is an enzyme, which catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol and converts 5-cholesten-3-ol into 4- cholesten-3-one. Cholesterol oxidase producing bacteria were isolated from waste of regional oil mill, soil and compost. Twenty-five isolates are tested for cholesterol oxidase activity by screening method. As the result of the screening, CHO producer strain was isolated and identified.Screening and isolation of bacterial strains producing extracellular form of cholesterol oxidase are very important due to its wide spectrum applications. Cholesterol oxidase enzyme has many applications in medicine, agriculture, industry and pharmaceutical sectors.
Nowadays, many researchers have focused on the preparation and characterization of new biomaterials which could be used for the bone tissue reconstruction without the problems of traditional metallic and organic materials. Consisting of two main chapters, this study gives the information about bioactive glass-ceramics and hydroxyapatite which are predestined materials for biomedical applications, in particular in orthopedic and dental implants, due to their excellent bioactivity and proved biocompatibility. The preparation method and characterization of sol-gel derived BSA-bioactive glass-ceramic nanocomposite is discussed in the first chapter and the second chapter presents a detailed discussion of the synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite-chitosan nanocomposite.
Emergence of multi-resistant organisms (MROs) leads to ineffective treatment with the currently available medications which pose a great threat to public health and food technology sectors. In this regard, there is an urgent need to strengthen the present therapies or to look over for other prospective alternatives such as use of “metal nanocomposites” and “drug loaded polymeric nanofibers”. Herein, we report synthesis of silver-zinc oxide (Ag-ZnO) nanocomposites and drug loaded chitosan-PEO (Polyethylene oxide) nanofibers with excellent antibacterial activity. Formulation of such nanocomposites and nanofibers hold great promise towards development of antimicrobial packages and for various biomedical applications.
Polypyrrole (PPy) as a conducting polymer has potential applications in electrical and electronic devices. This book therefore aimed to produce novel “polypyrrole fibres via the development of nanostructured conducting polypyrrole” by fibre spinning of PPy and to investigate the formed fibres for applications such as actuators, e-textiles, batteries, sensors and biomedical areas. As a result polypyrrole fibres have been produced for the first time. Subsequent work sought to improve the properties of these first generation PPy fibres by increasing the molecular weight, addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and addition of a supporting polymer (alginate). The use of the host polymer also enabled a new fibre spinning method to be developed that included an in situ polymerization process. The highest conductivity and Young''s modulus of any conducting polymer based fibre reported to date was obtained by incorporating PPy into a CNT yarn. In summary, a range of novel fibres PPy materials have been developed for possible use in applications such as actuators, sensors, artificial muscles, batteries and biomedical applications.
Macrocyclic ligands that can incorporate two or more metal ions giving homo- or hetero-dinuclear complexes are of considerable interest. Some of these hetero-dinuclear complexes are interesting as they mimic the active sites of metalloenzymes, such as cytochrome-c oxidase and bovine erythrocyte superoxide dismutase. Such systems are very helpful in investigating mutual influences of the two metal centers on electronic, magnetic, and electrochemical properties. Therefore, such types of system are very helpful in biological diagnostic applications. Research in inorganic chemistry has expanded in recent years by exploiting a variety of chelating ligands to modify and control the characteristics of metal ions in biological systems. Macrocyclic ligands offer the benefit of high stability complex formation and, through functionalization, the opportunity to modify the coordination environment. The pharmaceutical and bio-medical industry has yet to appreciate the impact coordination chemistry can have on the design of novel medicines. This may change the future as skilled multi-disciplinary experts may develop their investigation using a strategic approach to complex design.
Natural materials have attracted considerable attention for drug delivery applications due to their abundant availability, compatibility with environment and degradation under natural or physiological conditions. Natural gum resins have been used since ancient times for a wide range of applications: varnishes, sealant, binding media and waterproofing. The most commonly used resins for plant and varnishes are Rosin, Sandarac, Dammar, Mastic and Copal. Gum Dammar is a natural resinous material of plant Shorea javanica, family – Dipterocarpaceae. It contains about 40% alpha-resin (resin that dissolves in alcohol), 22% beta-resin, 23% dammarol acid and 2.5% water. This book deals with the research carried out on Dammar gum for its utility as pharmaceutical excipient. The various chapters of the book deals with characterization of dammar gum, its use as film forming, coating & microencapsulating agent, along with its biodegradation, biocompatibility and drug interaction studies.
The rapid growth and development of electronic imaging in the recent years has led to large scale digital media archives. These are increasingly becoming popular as more and more digital media contents are created and deployed online every day. A critical issue in designing such archives is effective storage of the data. Uncompressed data requires more storage and huge bandwidth for transmission. Though the cost of storage is rapidly dropping, compression still remains as a challenging issue due to the growing number of multimedia based online applications. This necessitates the design of highly efficient image compression systems which promise good image quality and compression ratios with low computational complexity. This book is an outcome of the research in vector quantization based methods for compressing still images. It discusses novel image compression methods with performance analysis using standard compression metrics and their vital role in real-time applications. The proposed methods can be used in applications like Medical Image Processing, Mobile Applications, Biometrics, Remote Sensing and other online web applications.