The first book of its kind to introduce the fundamentals, basic features and models, potential applications and novel phenomena and its important applications in liquid crystal technology. Recognized leader in the field Gaetano Assanto outlines the peculiar characteristics of nematicons and the promise they have for the future growth of this captivating new field.
The book addresses the basics, applications, and manufacturing of plasmid biopharmaceuticals. The survey of the most relevant characteristics of plasmids provides the basics for designing plasmid products (applications) and processes (manufacturing). Key features that the authors include in the book are: i) consistency and clear line of direction, ii) an extensive use of cross-referencing between the individual chapters, iii) a rational integration of chapters, iv) appellative figures, tables and schemes, and v) an updated, but selected choice of references, with a focus on key papers.
This practical book summarizes the latest research results of orthogonally polarized lasers, birefringence laser cavities, and their applications. Coverage ranges from basic principles and technologies to the characteristics of different cavities and lasers to various measurement techniques. A number of figures, experimental designs, and measurement curves are included, helping readers gain a thorough understanding of the many applications in modern engineering and start their own projects. Many types of relevant lasers (Helium/Neon lasers, Nd:YAG lasers, laser diodes, etc.) are also discussed.
Cost-effective strategies for designing novel drug delivery systems that target a broad range of disease conditions In vivo imaging has become an important tool for the development of new drug delivery systems, shedding new light on the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, bioavailability, local concentration, and clearance of drug substances for the treatment of human disease, most notably cancer. Written by a team of international experts, this book examines the use of quantitative imaging techniques in designing and evaluating novel drug delivery systems and applications. Drug Delivery Applications of Noninvasive Imaging offers a full arsenal of tested and proven methods, practices and guidance, enabling readers to overcome the many challenges in creating successful new drug delivery systems. The book begins with an introduction to molecular imaging. Next, it covers: In vivo imaging techniques and quantitative analysis Imaging drugs and drug carriers at the site of action, including low-molecular weight radiopharmaceuticals, peptides and proteins, siRNA, cells, and nanoparticles Applications of imaging techniques in administration routes other than intravenous injection, such as pulmonary and oral delivery Translational research leading to clinical applications Imaging drug delivery in large animal models Clinical applications of imaging techniques to guide drug development and drug delivery Chapters are based on a thorough review of the current literature as well as the authors' firsthand experience working with imaging techniques for the development of novel drug delivery systems. Presenting state-of-the-technology applications of imaging in preclinical and clinical evaluation of drug delivery systems, Drug Delivery Applications of Noninvasive Imaging offers cost-effective strategies to pharmaceutical researchers and students for developing drug delivery systems that accurately target a broad range of disease conditions.
A multidisciplinary approach that explores the diverse properties, functions, and applications of nanomaterials Drawing together the many scientific and engineering disciplines underlying the development of nanomaterials, Nanoscale Multifunctional Materials provides a multidisciplinary review of the diverse properties, functions, and applications of nanomaterials. The book examines both nanoparticles, which have larger-scale equivalents, and uniquely assembled nanomaterials, which do not have larger-scale equivalents. Readers will gain a tremendous appreciation of the versatility of nanomaterials as well as an understanding of how the same nanomaterial can have several distinct applications across a broad range of fields and industries. Nanoscale Multifunctional Materials is divided into three sections: ? Section I, Overview, describes the scientific phenomena underlying the special properties of nanomaterials, making them desirable as novel materials and different from conventional solids. Next, readers will learn about the effect of nanomaterials on contemporary society as well as future trends in nanomaterials production and use. ? Section II, Processing and Analysis, explores several experimental approaches in nanomaterial fabrication and characterization as well as in theoretical approaches in modeling and simulation. ? Section III, Applications, offers detailed examples of nanomaterial applications in alternative energy, thermal management, environmental cleanup, water treatment, and biomedicine. Each chapter has been written by one or more leading experts in the science, engineering, and application of nanomaterials. Within each chapter, readers will find a thorough review of the current literature, with references to facilitate further investigation of individual topics. Underscoring the multidisciplinary and multifunctional characteristics of nanomaterials, this book is recommended for students and professionals in science and engineering who need a broad perspective on both the nature and application of nanomaterials. The text also sets the stage for the development of new nanomaterials and new applications.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have novel properties that make them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics and other fields of materials science. These characteristics include extraordinary strength, unique electrical properties, and the fact that they are efficient heat conductors. Field emission is the emission of electrons from the surface of a condensed phase into another phase due to the presence of high electric fields. CNT field emitters are expected to make a breakthrough in the development of field emission display technology and enable miniature X-ray sources that will find a wide variety of applications in electronic devices, industry, and medical and security examinations. This first monograph on the topic covers all aspects in a concise yet comprehensive manner – from the fundamentals to applications. Divided into four sections, the first part discusses the preparation and characterization of carbon nanotubes, while part two is devoted to the field emission properties of carbon nanotubes, including the electron emission mechanism, characteristics of CNT electron sources, and dynamic behavior of CNTs during operation. Part three highlights field emission from other nanomaterials, such as carbon nanowalls, diamond, and silicon and zinc oxide nanowires, before concluding with frontier R&D applications of CNT emitters, from vacuum electronic devices such as field emission displays, to electron sources in electron microscopes, X-ray sources, and microwave amplifiers. Edited by a pioneer in the field, each chapter is written by recognized experts in the respective fields.
A comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the major mineral and organic fillers for plastics, their production, structure and properties, as well as their applications in terms of primary and secondary functions. Edited and co-authored by Professor Marino Xanthos with contributions by international experts from industry and academia, this book presents methods of mixing/incorporation technologies, surface treatments and modifications for enhanced functionality, an analysis of parameters affecting filler performance and a presentation of current and emerging applications. Additionally, the novel classification according to modification of specific polymer properties rather than filler chemical composition provides a better understanding of the relationships between processing, structure and properties of products containing functional fillers and the identification of new markets and applications. For engineers, scientists and technologists involved in the important sector of polymer composites.
Refrigeration Systems and Applications, 2nd edition offers a comprehensive treatise that addresses real-life technical and operational problems, enabling the reader to gain an understanding of the fundamental principles and the practical applications of refrigeration technology. New and unique analysis techniques (including exergy as a potential tool), models, correlations, procedures and applications are covered, and recent developments in the field are included – many of which are taken from the author's own research activities in this area. The book also includes some discussion of global warming issues and its potential solutions. Enables the reader to gain an understanding of the fundamental principles and the practical applications of refrigeration technologies. Discusses crucial industrial technical and operational problems, as well as new performance improvement techniques and tools for better design and analysis. Includes fundamental aspects of thermodynamics, fluid flow, and heat transfer; refrigerants; refrigeration cycles and systems; advanced refrigeration cycles and systems, including some novel applications; heat pumps; heat pipes; and many more. Provides easy to follow explanations, numerous new chapter-end problems and worked-out examples as learning aids for students and instructors. Refrigeration is extensively used in a variety of thermal engineering applications ranging from the cooling of electronic devices to food cooling processes. Its wide-ranging implications and applications mean that this industry plays a key role in national and international economies, and it continues to be an area of active research and development. Refrigeration Systems and Applications, 2nd edition forms a useful reference source for graduate and postgraduate students and researchers in academia and as well as practicing engineers working in this important field who are interested in refrigeration systems and applications and the methods and analysis tools for their analysis, design and performance improvement.
This book comprehensively covers iodine, its chemistry, and its role in functional materials, reagents, and compounds. • Provides an up-to-date, detailed overview of iodine chemistry with discussion on elemental aspects: characteristics, properties, iodides, and halogen bonding • Acts as a useful guide for readers to learn how to synthesize complex compounds using iodine reagents or intermediates • Describes traditional and modern processing techniques, such as starch, cupper, blowing out, and ion exchange resin methods • Includes seven detailed sections devoted to the applications of iodine: Characteristics, Production, Synthesis, Biological Applications, Industrial Applications, Bioorganic Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry, and Radioisotopes • Features hot topics in the field, such as hypervalent iodine-mediated cross coupling reactions, agrochemicals, dye sensitized solar cells, and therapeutic agents
Presents the latest advances in complex-valued neural networks by demonstrating the theory in a wide range of applications Complex-valued neural networks is a rapidly developing neural network framework that utilizes complex arithmetic, exhibiting specific characteristics in its learning, self-organizing, and processing dynamics. They are highly suitable for processing complex amplitude, composed of amplitude and phase, which is one of the core concepts in physical systems to deal with electromagnetic, light, sonic/ultrasonic waves as well as quantum waves, namely, electron and superconducting waves. This fact is a critical advantage in practical applications in diverse fields of engineering, where signals are routinely analyzed and processed in time/space, frequency, and phase domains. Complex-Valued Neural Networks: Advances and Applications covers cutting-edge topics and applications surrounding this timely subject. Demonstrating advanced theories with a wide range of applications, including communication systems, image processing systems, and brain-computer interfaces, this text offers comprehensive coverage of: Conventional complex-valued neural networks Quaternionic neural networks Clifford-algebraic neural networks Presented by international experts in the field, Complex-Valued Neural Networks: Advances and Applications is ideal for advanced-level computational intelligence theorists, electromagnetic theorists, and mathematicians interested in computational intelligence, artificial intelligence, machine learning theories, and algorithms.
An interdisciplinary approach to one of the hottest topics in nanotechnology and nanoscience Biosensing Using Nanomaterials introduces novel concepts in the area of bioanalysis based on nanomaterials, opening new opportunities for basic research and new tools for real bioanalytical applications. In fifteen chapters, readers are introduced to the most successful nanomaterials used so far in biosensing, including carbon nanotubes, nanoparticles, and nanochannels. Each chapter provides a theoretical overview of the topic, a discussion of the published data relating to the bioanalytical system, and a selected list of references for further investigation. The result is a book that provides a comprehensive forum of interest to scientists, engineers, researchers, manufacturers, teachers, and students. Biosensing Using Nanomaterials is an important resource for a broad audience involved in the research, teaching, learning, and practice of integrating nanomaterials into biosensing systems for clinical, environmental, and industrial applications.
The book gives an overview on the current development status of synthetic diamond films and their applications. Its initial part is devoted to discuss the different types of conductive diamond electrodes that have been synthesized, their preparation methods, and their chemical properties and characterization. The electrochemical properties of diamond films in different scientific areas, with special attention in electroanalysis, are further described. Different strategies to modify these electrodes are also discussed as important technologies with ability to change their electrochemical characteristics for a more specific electroanalytical use. The second part of the book deals with practical applications of diamond electrodes to the industry, organic electrosynthesis, electrochemical energy technology, and biotechnology. Special emphasis is made on the properties of these materials for the production of strong oxidizing species allowing the fast mineralization of organics and their use for water disinfection and decontamination. Recent biotechnological development on biosensors, microelectrodes, and nanostructured electrodes, as well as on neurochemistry, is also presented. The book will be written by a large number of internationally recognized experts and comprises 24 chapters describing the characteristics and theoretical fundaments of the different electrochemical uses and applications of synthetic diamond films.
This unique book covers fundamentals of organolithium compounds and gives a comprehensive overview of the latest synthetic advances and developments in the field. Part I covers computational and spectroscopic aspects as well as structure-reactivity relationships of organolithiums, whereas Part II deals with new lithium-based synthetic methodologies as well as novel synthetic applications of functionalized lithium compounds. A useful resource for newcomers and active researchers involved in organic synthesis, whether working in academia or industry!
This book is an archival reference for the evolving field of biomaterials and their applications in society, focusing on their composition, properties, characterization, chemistry and applications in bioenergy, chemicals, and novel materials and biomaterials. It has broad appeal due to the recent heightened awareness around bioenergy and biomass as potential replacements for petroleum feedstocks. The book is divided into three parts: cellulose-based biomaterials, chitin and chitosan biomaterials, and hemicelluloses and other polysaccharides. Each chapter addresses a separate biomaterial, discussing its chemical, physical, and biological attributes, and hones in on each compound's intrinsic tunability for numerous chemical transformations. In the current quest for a «green» economy and resources, this book will help inspire scientists towards novel sources for chemicals, materials, and energy in the years to come.
Novel Characters offers a fascinating and in-depth history of the novelistic character from the “birth of the novel” in Don Quixote, through the great canonical works of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, to the most influential international novels of the present day An original study which offers a unique approach to thinking about and discussing character Makes extensive reference to both traditional and more recent and specialized academic studies of the novel Provides a critical vocabulary for understanding how the novelistic conception of character has changed over time. Examines a broad range of novels, cultures, and periods Promotes discussion of how different cultures and times think about human identity, and how the concept of what a character is has changed over time