Advancements in the micro/nano-fabrication techniques have opened up new avenues for the development of portable and easier-to-use biosensors. Over the last few years, carbon electrodes have been widely used as sensing units in biosensors due to their attractive physiochemical properties. This book details different strategies to develop functionalized high surface carbon micro/nano-electrodes for electrochemical and biosensing devices. Carbon electrodes were fabricated via carbon-MEMS technique, which is based on pyrolyzing prepatterned photoresist. To increase the surface area of the carbon electrodes, multiple approaches such as (i) fabrication of porous 3D carbon microarrays, (ii) conformal coating of graphene onto 3D carbon microarrays, and (iii) fabrication of controllable carbon nanostructures were investigated. For carbon surface functionalization to covalently attach biomolecules, different oxidation techniques and the resultant surface carbon–oxygen groups were analyzed and compared. Lastly, label-free detection of platelet-derived growth factor oncoprotein, a cancer biomarker, was demonstrated on 3D carbon microarrays platform with sub-nanomolar detection limit.
Hordeski: Computer ?integrated? Manufacturing – Techniques & Applications
The combination of biological molecules and CNTs is of great importance in developing miniaturized sensor devices for future clinical diagnostic and electronics applications. Biosensing technology using aligned CNTs solely depends upon amplified signals generated by biomolecular interactions. Aligned CNTs have huge potential as electrochemical sensors as they provide enhanced electron transfer in redox reactions due to high length to diameter (aspect ratio). CNT based functional devices including transistors, sensor, emitters and energy units require vertically aligned CNTs with a high length to diameter aspect ratio and their ability to mediate electron transfer reactions of electroactive species in solution when used as electrode material. Carbon nanotubes have been proved as better electrode materials than traditional carbon electrodes, clay nanoparticles and conducting polymers etc. due to their proficient charge transfer capability and high chemical stability. Major Aim of this book is to present clear idea to the readers who intend to devise a highly sensitive and efficient vertically aligned CNT based electrochemical sensors.
Enzyme electrodes are biochemical transducers. They function by converting biochemical reactions into electrochemical processes. This functionality could potentially give rise to a new generation of implantable medical devices such as biofuel cells and biosensors. The main aim of this study was to fabricate and characterise enzyme electrodes for potential use in these applications. The approach involved testing various materials such as different types of enzyme, polymeric electron transfer mediators, enzyme entrapment materials, conductive supports and matrices and biocompatible polymers. Various enzyme immobilisation methods were used and various polymeric electron transfer mediators were fabricated and tested. The investigation was based primarily on electrochemical techniques. The materials and immobilisation techniques presented could potentially be used to improve future enzyme electrodes. This may be achieved through the novel use of biocompatible and biomimicking polymers, through simple biofuel cell fabrication and with the use of multi analyte biosensors developed during this investigation.
Biosensors are nowadays a powerful tool to enable the detection of specific biological interactions and to evaluate the concentration dependence in the response. A biosensor usually consists of three different parts: the sample to be measured, the transducer and the electronic system that amplifies the signal, analyzes the data and brings a result to the final user. When the analyte interacts with the bioreceptor, the transducer sends a signal that is processed by the electronics. All this process occurs in a efficient, quick, cheap, simple and specific way. Optical biosensors are the most powerful ones for investigating processes at the solid/liquid interface. Among them the grating coupler is immune to electromagnetic interferences, pushes the sensitivity to levels even higher than other techniques and allows for the direct monitoring of macromolecular adsorption. Taking advantage of the last advances in nanotechnology, this book studies the versatility of an Optical Grating Coupler Biosensor. The design of new grating sensor chips is investigated, a new calibration technique for the sensors is proposed and different biomedical scenarios are tested.
A comprehensive guide to MEMS materials, technologies and manufacturing, examining the state of the art with a particular emphasis on current and future applications.Key topics covered include:Silicon as MEMS materialMaterial properties and measurement techniquesAnalytical methods used in materials characterizationModeling in MEMSMeasuring MEMSMicromachining technologies in MEMSEncapsulation of MEMS componentsEmerging process technologies, including ALD and porous siliconWritten by 73 world class MEMS contributors from around the globe, this volume covers materials selection as well as the most important process steps in bulk micromachining, fulfilling the needs of device design engineers and process or development engineers working in manufacturing processes. It also provides a comprehensive reference for the industrial R&D and academic communities. Veikko Lindroos is Professor of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science at Helsinki University of Technology, Finland.Markku Tilli is Senior Vice President of Research at Okmetic, Vantaa, Finland.Ari Lehto is Professor of Silicon Technology at Helsinki University of Technology, Finland.Teruaki Motooka is Professor at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan. . Provides vital packaging technologies and process knowledge for silicon direct bonding, anodic bonding, glass frit bonding, and related techniques. Shows how to protect devices from the environment and decrease package size for dramatic reduction of packaging costs. Discusses properties, preparation, and growth of silicon crystals and wafers. Explains the many properties (mechanical, electrostatic, optical, etc), manufacturing, processing, measuring (incl. focused beam techniques), and multiscale modeling methods of MEMS structures
Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) are micromachines that allow computation, sensing, mobility, and manipulation at small scales down to the size of microns. During the past decade, MEMS technology has allowed the development of many advanced devices that have found their way to the market. Ever increasing needs for MEMS are fueled by the exponential growth of markets such as cell phones, gaming, and communications and military applications. Both quality and price requirements put stringent specifications on the new MEMS devices. Feedback control techniques facilitate reliably meeting these specifications. This book provides the reader with control strategies and design techniques in a collection of practical examples, covering topics such as dynamical modeling of MEMS devices, dynamic control for performance improvement, and improved MEMS design based on control system analysis.
This book briefly overviews progress on development of MEMS based microfluidic devices such as micropumps, microneedles, micromixers and micro flow cytometers for biomedical applications. Design, analysis and fabrication of MEMS based piezoelectrically actuated polymeric valveless micropumps is also presented. The book provides a valuable reference for researchers working on design and development of MEMS-based microfluidic devices for biomedical applications.
Heroine is synthetic derivative of morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from unripe seeds or capsules of Papaver somniferum (poppy plant). The use of heroine and morphine as a recreational drug has reached epidemic proportion, largely because of increased availability. The currently used techniques for the detection of opiate drugs are time consuming, expensive and not amenable to on-site application. This book describes about development of a highly sensitive, fast, reliable, field applicable and cost effective immunoassay/ immunobiosensor for the detection of opiate drugs: morphine and heroin, the most addictive and commonly abused narcotics. Various types of immunoassay are described in this book using enzyme, fluorophore, carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles and phage display detection which shows detection limit in the ppb range without the aid of any sophisticated instrument.
This Book covers all relevant topics in MEMS and is designed to cater to the needs of all branches of Engineering students.Writtem in lucid style, this book assimilates the best practices of conceptual pedagogy, dealing at length with various topics such as MEMS, Advantages, Materials of MEMS, How MEMS Works, Various applications of MEMS and Thermal Expansion role in Micro Scale. Sailent Features: What is MEMS History of MEMS Technology How MEMS Works Characterstics of MEMS MEMS Materails Advantages and Disadvantages MEMS Fabrication Methods Applications of MEMS in Various Fields Thermal Expansion in MEMS Designing of Thermal Expansion in MEMS Simulation of Thermal Expansion in MEMS Importance of Thermal Expansion in MEMS
Sensors and devices, based on micromachining technology, known as micro-electro-mechanicalsystems or MEMS, have been received increasing attention so far in recent years. Micromachined inertial sensors, consisting of accelerometers and gyroscopes, are one of the most important types of silicon-based sensor. MEMS capacitive accelerometers have been extensively used in automobiles, inertial navigation systems, earth quake detection and many other bio-medical applications. This book deals with the design of a monolithic 3DOF MEMS capacitive accelerometer using both analytical and numerical techniques. Monolithic accelerometer is a single structure having three individual single axis Accelerometers on a single substrate and utilizes a surface micromachining technology using standard PolyMUMPs process. The designed accelerometer is 3mm?3.1mm in size, has low mechanical noise floor, high sense capacitance and high sensitivity along in-plane (x and y) and out-of-plane (z) axes. Performing a detailed finite element analysis in ANSYS 11.o, physical level simulation has been done to verify the deflection for x, y and z axes with respect to the applied acceleration (g).
Acrylonitrile is a key monomer for various polymeric consumer products. Acrylonitrile most important application is for the production of polymer for textile fibers. ABS is the most widely used engineering (i.e. metal replacing) plastic. Because of its reactivity, acrylonitrile can be used as a chemical intermediate. Some Acrylonitrile co polymers have found specialty applications where good gas barrier properties are required along with strength and high impact resistance. A growing specialty application for acrylonitrile is in the manufacture of carbon fibers for high performance application in the air craft, defense, and aerospace industries. These applications include rocket engine nozzles, rocket nose cones, and structural components for aircraft and orbital vehicles where light weight and high strength are needed.
This book explores the history and structure of carbon nanotubes and the current technologies and methods available for synthesizing, purifying, and assembling carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, the current state of fabrication of carbon nanotubes has not reached a level where they can be commercialized. The most commonly used techniques of chemical vapor deposition (CVD), arc discharge, and laser ablation are discussed in detail with emphasis placed on three criteria: cost, rate, and flexibility. Satisfactory achievement in these three areas will result in the ability to have carbon nanotubes as a product. Assembly methods like nanopelleting and individual transplanting has helped make great strides towards reaching a state of commercialization, but several advancements need to take place with respect to carrying current processes out on a larger scale at affordable prices.
This BOOK covers all relevant topics in MEMS and is design to cater to the needs of all branches of engineering students. Written in lucid style, this book assimilates the best practice of pedagogy, dealing at length with various topics such MEMS, MEMS Applications and its importance in Engineering Community. Sailent Features: 1. Introduction to MEMS 2. Introduction to Fabrication Technology 3. Introduction to Comsol 4. Introduction to Capacitors 5. Tunable MEMS Capacitor 6. Design Procedure 7. Simulation of tunable capacitor in Micro scale
The rapid progress in the field of organic conducting materials has found possible applications for sensors and molecular electronics. Among them both conducting polymers and carbon nanotubes, specifically Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes, are good candidates for these applications. Their associations can lead to the synthesis of materials called nanocomposites which resemble the whole physical and chemical properties of the starting ones. This book is therefore focused on the fabrication of nanocomposites materials, based on polyaniline derivatives and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, by means of standardized oxidative polymerization, and the subsequent characterizations by different techniques to asses the physical and chemical properties of the synthesised materials.