Microbial and plant fuel cell represents a new type of green technology for electricity generation. In this book, batch production of electricity using river water sediment and plant sediment is reported .Experiments were conducted in a single chamber microbial fuel cell and plant fuel cell to study the amount of electricity produced. The study revealed that river water sediments and plants could be used effectively for direct electricity generation in single dedicated fuel cell. Plant fuel technology is still in an early stage of development but shows great promise as new method for renewable electricity generation. Such a system can produce in-situ 24 hours per day green electricity without harvesting the plants. The Plant-MFC concept has several attractive qualities which can provide the significant breakthrough for sustainable energy production in India.
Biomass is biodegradable, less CO2, CO, H2S, HC and NOX emissions as well as renewable energy resource for the creation of steam and electricity, transportation fuel, manufacturing industries as well as a solvent in the laboratory. Agricultural crops residues (biomass) have emerged as one of the promising sources for bioethanol production. Such an approach can contribute to solve major problems of air pollution resulting from green house gas emission evolution and future crisis due to the shortage of energy sources. The controlling factors that affect the production of bio-fuel (biodiesel and bioethanol) from biomass are described. The optimal value of the parameters such as temperature, pH, yeast and enzyme percent and fermentation period are found and explained. Different types of fuel cell and electricity generation were explained from different scientific sources. Nowadays biofuel as well as biofuel cell is an innovative and important energy source from biomass by which power can be generated both in transportation and electricity. Still no research work done in this regard except few demonstration. That is why, the scope of innovative bio-fuel cell for electricity generation.
The study was conducted to produce bioethanol fuel from rambutan biomass using different parameters. The effects of days, pH, temperatures, enzyme and yeast concentration and components of rambutan fruit waste on bioethanol production were investigated. From the results, the maximum yield of bioethanol in different parameters such as, pH temperatures, fermentation period, and yeast concentration was found at 5, 30°C, 2 days and 4 g/l (w/v), respectively. Viscosity, acid value and some metal content were found within the limits described by the American Standards for Testing Material. The bioethanol was analyzed and found that there was no toxic elements and acceptable for transportation fuel and followed the quality of ASTM standard. Fuel consumption was found less at 10% than 5% bioethanol and 100% gasoline. Greenhouse gas/engine emissions like CO2, CO, SO2, HC and NOX were reduced by using bioethanol. Bioelectricity was generated successfully by using bioethanol based fuel cell. The bioethanol from biomass was of good quality which generated electricity (recorded in votage an RPM by fuel cell). Waste material (biomass) can also be managed and renewed energy using this technolog.
Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refueling time. Moreover, the fuel cell vehicles have benefits such as high efficiency, zero harmful emissions, and a potentially renewable fuel.
PEFC fuel cell have great role in the field of renewable energy having high efficiency.A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts the chemical energy of fuel into electrical energy and heat without combustion. Fuel cell systems operate on pure hydrogen and air to produce electricity with water and heat as the by products. Fuel cell power system can be used in domestic applications,industries,and in transport.
The design of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) stack requires careful consideration of thermal, water, and gas management to ensure high stack performance in operation. This work aims to develop a mathematical and numerical model for PEFC stacks that serves two objectives: the first involves a study of the fundamental aspects of the PEFC and the associated transport phenomena, electrochemical processes and multiphase flow for a single cell as well as a stack. The second objective concerns the development and integration of applied research for the PEFC single cell and stack, including new designs and related management issues (thermal, gas, and water) to achieve an enhanced fuel cell performance. This book provides basic guidelines for fuel cell engineers to design and enhance fuel cell performance.