The study was conducted to produce bioethanol fuel from rambutan biomass using different parameters. The effects of days, pH, temperatures, enzyme and yeast concentration and components of rambutan fruit waste on bioethanol production were investigated. From the results, the maximum yield of bioethanol in different parameters such as, pH temperatures, fermentation period, and yeast concentration was found at 5, 30°C, 2 days and 4 g/l (w/v), respectively. Viscosity, acid value and some metal content were found within the limits described by the American Standards for Testing Material. The bioethanol was analyzed and found that there was no toxic elements and acceptable for transportation fuel and followed the quality of ASTM standard. Fuel consumption was found less at 10% than 5% bioethanol and 100% gasoline. Greenhouse gas/engine emissions like CO2, CO, SO2, HC and NOX were reduced by using bioethanol. Bioelectricity was generated successfully by using bioethanol based fuel cell. The bioethanol from biomass was of good quality which generated electricity (recorded in votage an RPM by fuel cell). Waste material (biomass) can also be managed and renewed energy using this technolog.
Biomass is biodegradable, less CO2, CO, H2S, HC and NOX emissions as well as renewable energy resource for the creation of steam and electricity, transportation fuel, manufacturing industries as well as a solvent in the laboratory. Agricultural crops residues (biomass) have emerged as one of the promising sources for bioethanol production. Such an approach can contribute to solve major problems of air pollution resulting from green house gas emission evolution and future crisis due to the shortage of energy sources. The controlling factors that affect the production of bio-fuel (biodiesel and bioethanol) from biomass are described. The optimal value of the parameters such as temperature, pH, yeast and enzyme percent and fermentation period are found and explained. Different types of fuel cell and electricity generation were explained from different scientific sources. Nowadays biofuel as well as biofuel cell is an innovative and important energy source from biomass by which power can be generated both in transportation and electricity. Still no research work done in this regard except few demonstration. That is why, the scope of innovative bio-fuel cell for electricity generation.
Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refueling time. Moreover, the fuel cell vehicles have benefits such as high efficiency, zero harmful emissions, and a potentially renewable fuel.
Microbial and plant fuel cell represents a new type of green technology for electricity generation. In this book, batch production of electricity using river water sediment and plant sediment is reported .Experiments were conducted in a single chamber microbial fuel cell and plant fuel cell to study the amount of electricity produced. The study revealed that river water sediments and plants could be used effectively for direct electricity generation in single dedicated fuel cell. Plant fuel technology is still in an early stage of development but shows great promise as new method for renewable electricity generation. Such a system can produce in-situ 24 hours per day green electricity without harvesting the plants. The Plant-MFC concept has several attractive qualities which can provide the significant breakthrough for sustainable energy production in India.
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are electrochemical devices that use metabolic activities of microorganisms to oxidize organic and inorganic matter and generate electricity. MFC technology is a multidisciplinary approach to the quest for alternate sources of energy. In recent years, MFC technology expressed itself as potential technology for simultaneous electricity generation and waste treatment. It is the purpose of this book to outline, in a concise but comprehensible manner, the fundamentals and development of MFCs and their application as wastewater treatment device. This Book comprises six parts: Chapter 1 contains Introduction and aim of present work. Chapter 2 deals with the critical analysis of MFC research in past and future possibilities. Chapter 3 discloses major methodology used, while Chapter 4 shows the detailed results. Chapter 5 contains conclusion and Chapter 6 is conclusion of present research. As this book is based on results of MFC research, in writing it, the author has drawn about all aspects of MFCs to understand MFCs from every point of view. This book will be beneficial for students, researchers and teachers working on wastewater treatment and bioelectricity.
Attributed to exponentially growing global energy demand in current scenario, Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) is an attempt aimed towards achieving integrated water and energy sustainability. MFC acts a bio-electrochemical reactor (system) that utilizes the ability of microorganisms to destabilize organic compounds present in wastewater, of domestic or industrial origin, resulting in breakdown of these compounds into simpler forms coupled with generation of electricity. This imparts MFC, status of a biofuel cell, which has clear advantages of operation at mild reaction conditions, cost effective and biotechnology based wastewater treatment with reduced sludge formation coupled with energy generation over chemical fuel cells that use highly reactive fuels and severe operating conditions. This book aims at reviewing timely developments in Microbial Fuel Cell Technology with emphasis on its application in the area of effluent treatment clubbed with the potential for electricity generation.
The concern about global warming effects by continuous exploitation of non renewable fossil fuels and scarcity of electricity generation accelerates the urge for searching alternative source of energy. Development of Microbial fuel cell using microbes present in waste water is the novel approach to treat this hurdle. Apart from biopower generation, it acts as a biosensor. Microbes metabolizes the organic matter present in waste water during the process electricity is generated. Within course of time the wastewater is treated with Chlorella vulgaris for the removal of phosphate for about 50 percent present in water. The amount of electricity generated has increased. The biomass thus produced, can be used for biofuel generation. For further purification of this treated wastewater, a novel method of treating it with Strychnos potatorum (chilla ginjalu) seeds is attempted.
The development of fuel cells over the last century has been heavily influenced by external factors. Initially, fuel cells were seen as an attractive means for the generation of power because the efficiencies of other technologies were very poor. However, as the efficiency of these other technologies rapidly improved, the interest in fuel cells faded. Then, in 1950’s fuel cells were rapidly developed for application in space. More recently, significant technical progress in fuel cell technology has made fuel cells appear more viable than ever for a variety of applications. Additionally, concerns about renewable energy resources and the environment have increased interests in generating power with even higher efficiencies and lower emissions, and this has also raised the interest in fuel cells. Although some interesting work was done on fuel cells during the first half of the 20th century, Sir Francis Bacon began his historical work on fuel cells in 1933 and developed a hydrogen-oxygen cell that operated at moderate temperatures using alkaline.
The demand for novel renewable energy sources, together with the new findings on bacterial electron transport mechanisms and the progress in microbial fuel cell design, have raised a noticeable interest in microbial power generation. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an electrochemical device that converts organic substrates into electricity via catalytic conversion by microorganism. It has represented a continuously growing research field during the past few years. This book presents how it is possible to optimize the properties and design of the micro-size microbial fuel cell for maximum efficiency by understanding the MFC system. So it involved designing, building and testing a miniature microbial fuel cell using a new species of microorganisms that promises high efficiency and long lifetime. The new device offer unique advantages of fast start-up, high sensitivity and superior microfluidic control over the measured microenvironment, which makes them good candidates for rapid screening of electrode materials, bacterial strains and growth media.
PEFC fuel cell have great role in the field of renewable energy having high efficiency.A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts the chemical energy of fuel into electrical energy and heat without combustion. Fuel cell systems operate on pure hydrogen and air to produce electricity with water and heat as the by products. Fuel cell power system can be used in domestic applications,industries,and in transport.
Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the challenging energy conversion devices for transportation and distributed power generation systems due to its attractive features such as high power density, low operating temperature, minimal emissions, negligible noise, and high efficiency. The success of the PEMFC technology is largely influenced by bipolar plate as well as electrocatalyst support apart from other components. This book covers the detailed methodology for synthesis and characterization of graphene. The synthesized monolayer graphene is investigated as reinforcement into the carbon-polymer composite bipolar plate. The developed optimized composite bipolar plate is evaluated for high temperature PEMFC (HT-PEMFC) application. Moreover, the graphene is used as an electrocatalyst support to enhance the electrochemical activity of PEMFC electrocatalyst. The state of the art information for the development and performance evaluation of PEMFC is discussed in detail. The information presented in this book will be helpful to the researchers, academicians, and manufacturers for the development of efficient bipolar plate and electrocatalyst for PEMFC.
Innovation in research and study is a significant key factor in the age of modern technologies. With view to this, we have published this manuscript that would be helpful to the researchers and research students to achieve innovative idea. Biomass is biodegradable, sustainable, less CO2, CO, SOx, HC and NOX emissions sources as well as renewable and outstanding energy resource for the creation of steam and electricity, transportation fuel, manufacturing industry and solvent in the laboratory. Biomass based products can also be used in the pharmaceutical, biomedical and cosmetic industries as biomaterials like bioethanol, biofuel, biopolymer bioplastic) and bio-plastic bone joint screw and execessories using bioconversion and bioprocess like fermentation and transesterification process. In our study, we have discussed the innovative bioelectricity generation from bioethanol derived from fruit biomass. The possible means for bioelectricity generation are mentioned from fresh water algae, microalgae, marine algae, waste oil, olive, dates fruit biomass and animal (chicken, camel etc.) fat biomass based biofuel like biodiesel and bioethanol, and biomaterials using bioprocess technology.
The global warming situation is worsened because of continuous increase in power generation using fossil fuels. Additionally, the world population keeps increasing at 1.2 – 2 % per year and primary energy demands are expected to increase by 1.5 – 3 times. In this present energy crisis, fuel cell is one of the best alternatives due to its high conversion efficiency and low pollution emittants. Fuel cells are used in a wide range of portable, stationary and transport applications, from battery chargers to home heating and power to cars. Arguably, fuel cells represent the most versatile energy solution ever invented. However, there are still several challenges that hinder fuel cell commercialization, including insufficient durability/reliability and high cost. Carbon nano-materials have a unique place in nano-science owing to their exceptional electrical, thermal, chemical and mechanical properties. These magic materials are having ability to perform several essential functions in a fuel cells leads to a much simpler fuel cell architecture.
The subject matter of this book include the solid state synthesis of the most important ceramic materials used as the structural components in the solid oxide fuel cells in which the chemical energy is directly converted into electricity. The combination of such cells with conventional thermal plants has demonstrated the increase in efficiency of electrical power generation considerably. The high temperatures involved in the synthesis of these materials however limit the maximum efficiency which could be derived from such hybrid systems. Attempts have been made in the present book to bring down the temperature of synthesis of these materials considerably. Three different materials which can be used as solid oxide electrolyte, cathode and interconnect component of SOFC have been synthesized using microwave processing and suitable precursor chemistry. This book also consists of details of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and principles of various characterization techniques used for analysis of materials synthesized in present work. This book is useful to PG and research students of chemistry, physics and materials science.