This book illustrate the study and development of bioactive electrodes to apply in piezoelectric sensors for biomedical applications, respectively in internal orthopedic prosthesis. These electrodes are composed by Titanium doped with Silver and Gold. Titanium, being widely known for its biocompatibility, serves as electrical conductor, Silver acts as antibacterial agent and Gold is used to induce Silver ionization due to the formation of a galvanic pair, once the antibacterial effect is achieved by Silver ions. These electrodes were deposited on piezoelectric polymer, assembling a sensor capable of detecting anomalies, in real time, related to the implementation of prosthetic devices inside the human body. The objective is to produce biocompatible and antibacterial electrodes without compromising the electrical conductivity. Along the literature the reader can find a state of the art related to this matter as well as the main results of the physical, chemical, electrical and structural characterization performed in this study.
Nowadays, many researchers have focused on the preparation and characterization of new biomaterials which could be used for the bone tissue reconstruction without the problems of traditional metallic and organic materials. Consisting of two main chapters, this study gives the information about bioactive glass-ceramics and hydroxyapatite which are predestined materials for biomedical applications, in particular in orthopedic and dental implants, due to their excellent bioactivity and proved biocompatibility. The preparation method and characterization of sol-gel derived BSA-bioactive glass-ceramic nanocomposite is discussed in the first chapter and the second chapter presents a detailed discussion of the synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite-chitosan nanocomposite.
Increased applications of titanium and its alloys as biomaterials originates from their lower modulus, superior biocompatibility and better corrosion resistance when compared to conventional stainless and cobalt-based alloys. The topics of this book are composed of two parts, one is bioactive surface using inorganic treatments and grafted ALP molecule, and the other is the effects of rapid solidification and Cu addition on microstructures and martensitic transformation behaviors in Ti-Ni alloy.
In recent past magnetic nanoparticles have been explored for a number of biomedical applications due to their superparamagnetic moment with high magnetic saturation value. For the various biomedical applications, magnetic nanoparticles are require to being monodispersed so that the individual nanoparticle has almost identical physico-chemical properties for biodistribution, bioelimination and contrast imaging potential. Further, the surface functionalization/modification of magnetic nanoparticles ultimately facilitates the enzyme immobilization, remediation of heavy metal ions, drug delivery and hyperthermia applications. The essential goal of this work is to evaluate the recent advances of magnetic nanoparticles for different biomedical applications.
Recently, one-dimensional nanostructures that include fibers, wires, rods, belts and tubes have attracted rapidly growing interest due to their fascinating properties and unique applications. Among them, electrospinning is a highly versatile technique to prepare continuous fibers with diameters of the order of nanometers. It is the most famous technique for the production of high aspect ratio nanofibers. The remarkable high aspect ratio and high porosity bring electrospun nanofibers highly attractive to various nanotechnological applications such as filteration, sensors, protective textile, catalysis, wound dressing, drug delivery, scaffolds in tissue engineering, and so on. This book, therefore, addresses a collective summary of the recent progress in developments of the electrospun ultrafine polyamide-6 nanofibers preparation, characterization and their applications. Information of those polymers together with their processing conditions for electrospinning of ultrafine nanofibers has been summarized. We are anticipating that this book certainly drive the researchers for developing more intensive investigation for exploring in many technological areas.
Enzyme electrodes are biochemical transducers. They function by converting biochemical reactions into electrochemical processes. This functionality could potentially give rise to a new generation of implantable medical devices such as biofuel cells and biosensors. The main aim of this study was to fabricate and characterise enzyme electrodes for potential use in these applications. The approach involved testing various materials such as different types of enzyme, polymeric electron transfer mediators, enzyme entrapment materials, conductive supports and matrices and biocompatible polymers. Various enzyme immobilisation methods were used and various polymeric electron transfer mediators were fabricated and tested. The investigation was based primarily on electrochemical techniques. The materials and immobilisation techniques presented could potentially be used to improve future enzyme electrodes. This may be achieved through the novel use of biocompatible and biomimicking polymers, through simple biofuel cell fabrication and with the use of multi analyte biosensors developed during this investigation.
Emergence of multi-resistant organisms (MROs) leads to ineffective treatment with the currently available medications which pose a great threat to public health and food technology sectors. In this regard, there is an urgent need to strengthen the present therapies or to look over for other prospective alternatives such as use of “metal nanocomposites” and “drug loaded polymeric nanofibers”. Herein, we report synthesis of silver-zinc oxide (Ag-ZnO) nanocomposites and drug loaded chitosan-PEO (Polyethylene oxide) nanofibers with excellent antibacterial activity. Formulation of such nanocomposites and nanofibers hold great promise towards development of antimicrobial packages and for various biomedical applications.
Clarke: ?neurophysiology?: Applications In The Behavioural & Biomedical Sciences
With the advancement in material chemistry, a range of novel materials have been introduced to healthcare, among them, silica has received a great attention due to its high biological compatibility. Furthermore, it?s composites with other materials have opens up realm of novel applications. This book embodies the appreciation of silica based metals nanocomposites by presenting their synthesis and application for very important sensing and healthcare sector. The entire material is presented in two sections divided in 10 chapters. The synthesis of Au-poly (dimethylsiloxane) nanocomposites by in-situ synthesis and galvanic replacement approach, characterization and functionalization for biosensing application using human serum albumin as a model system are described in Section A. While Section B deals with the synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of silica-silver nanocomposites against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The most exciting and unique aspect of the book is that the utilization of these nanocomposites not only enhances the biosensing capabilities, but also brings out newer approaches in healthcare.
Bioceramics and bioglass ceramics are a wide arena of research in the current era due to their potential applications in orthopedics and surgery. Although there is a great strategic significance of glass-ceramics in the field of bio-materials yet there is a lack of detailed study on the correlation between the structure and the activity of glass composition in biological surroundings that negatively affect the further progress in improving the chemical stability and modifying the biodegradability of these materials for certain applications. So there is a need to prepare and characterize new bio-glass ceramic materials using every possible compositional and parametric changes because bio-activity and structural properties of glass-ceramics are found to be greatly affected by these important variations. In this book, synthesis of bio-glass ceramics of novel compositions with different CaO/MgO ratio have been discussed and following features are explained in detail. 1- Correlation between crystalline phases, microstructure, and mechanical strength of bio-active glass ceramics with different CaO/MgO ratios. 2- Dissolution behaviour of bio-active glass ceramics with different CaO/MgO
Biometric systems are computer-assisted identity recognition systems that can identify people by assessing their physical and biological characteristics. With the help of this technology, the processes that require confidentiality are performed without errors, without unauthorized copying and without the need for another person to control the access, because the physical characteristics that are taken into consideration during the identity recognition process are different in each person. Fingerprint recognition, hand geometry recognition, palm recognition, iris/retina recognition, face recognition, voice analysis, signature analysis are among the most common methods for recognition purposes. Each of these systems have advantages as well as some drawbacks when the sectors in which they are going to provide services are considered. The convenience of a system is determined with the assessment of some factors such as its price, error rate, sensitivity level to the environment and being user-friendly. After the continuous researches, these methods have been optimized with the developing technology day by day, and the costs have been reduced.
Laser and fiber optics applications have opened some new possibilities in medicine and dentistry. Advanced diagnostic techniques and laser-based therapeutic techniques have been developed. Here, we have introduced some new techniques for medical and dental applications using lasers and modern optics. The main task of our work is biomedical applications of lasers. A new approach based on image holography is applied for dental deformation measurement. The advantages of this technique compare to existing techniques are shown. Imaging and deformation measurement of in-plane and out-plane deformations is performed using the interferometric fringes. Interferograms obtained by holographic-based techniques are shown. The imaging technique, based on optical implementation of moments as to our best knowledge, is introduced for the first time in biomedical applications. In addition to this Fourier Transform of far Field diffraction technique is introduced as well. A simple and robust technique based on the Moire phenomenon is applied. Using Moire fringes generated by two gratings and their projection on the object to be analyzed, contours and 3-D information are obtained.
Bone tissue is a complex structure with the capacity to self-regenerate and responsible for different functions in our body. However, when bone integrity is disturbed, its self-regenerative capacity is lost. The available treatments are based on bone grafts and other bone substitutes which possess several limitations. Herein, a new approach to mimic the extracellular matrix of bone and cellular microenvironment was developed in this work. Therefore, an electrospinning apparatus was used to produce poly(?-caprolactone), polyethylene oxide-sodium alginate and poly(vinyl)pirrolidone nanofibers. Subsequently, the same procedure was used for coating the alginate scaffold. In addition, poly(?-caprolactone) electrospun nanofiber membranes were also produced and evaluated for phase separation applications. Membranes specific properties, such as pore size, fibers diameter and surface interactions were studied. The biological properties of the coated scaffolds were evaluated through in vitro cytotoxicity assays. The results showed that all the coated scaffolds had their biological performance improved. The membranes showed to be good candidates for phase separation area.
Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been under intensive investigation in various biomedical applications. However, it is still a challenge to synthesize high quality SPIO NPs for better magnetic performance and less side effects in MRI and magnetic hyperthermia. In this work, well crystalline and control sized hydrophilic SPIO NPs high magnetization (Ms ~ 73 - 86 emu/g) have been synthesized. The SPIO NPs are systematically characterized to identify their structure, surface coating, magnetic properties, cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, relaxivity and specific absorption rate (SAR) properties. In vitro experiments have demonstrated high cellular uptake and low cytotoxicity and the AC magnetic field heating experiments showed high SAR (135-500 Watt/g) and 60-74% tumor cell death due to magnetic hyperthermia. The SPIO NPs have also demonstrated high r2* relaxivity (617.5 s-1mM-1) at 1.5 T and excellent in vivo MRI imaging contrast. In summary, the SPIO NPs are very promising candidate for clinical MRI as well as for magnetic hyperthermia treatment of tumor and thus, could be simultaneously used for cancer diagnostic and therapeutic (theranostic) applications