Electrical cell impedance sensing (ECIS) provides an interesting potential towards real time label free diagnostic tools. Its current use to measure cell growth and study the cell cultures requires transmission and fluorescent microscopy to confirm the results. Gold electrodes traditionally used in ECIS hinder the microscopy and hence the use of a new material that allows electrical measurements and improved level of microscopy is essential. PEDOT, a conducting polymer, can bridge the gap between ECIS and microscopy, hence paving the way for new sensor systems and satisfying the traditional biologists who desire confirmation of results through microscopy.
The research work presented in this book deals with the synthesis of condensed polymers from the naturally occurring pigment. It will be unique polymer and it may involve in the electronic applications because it is conducting polymer. These polymers were synthesized by chemical method and characterized by some analytical methods. The PLPA and PLPAS shows conducting nature, while PLMA and PLMAS are insulators polymers. These polymers may have the important properties such as gas sensing, temperature sensing, chemical sensing etc
The radiation synthesis of conductive polymer is a unique technique for producing many desirable biocompatible materials in nanoscale level with magnificent applications due to less impurity and abundant product i.e. commercial product. This book contains sufficient information about the types of polymers, different methods of preparing polymers, and application of polymer generally and specifically the preparation of conductive polymers and polymer doped with nanoparticles metals. The targeting scientific fields are Medical engineering, Medical physics, Polymer processing (membranes suiting Methanol Fuel Cell, Gas separation and Biosensors)
The preparation of conducting polymer is an emerging and interesting field of polymer science.It has many useful applications in electronics, industries and electrical devices. In this work, the insulating polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene (SBS) triblock copolymer was epoxidised by performic acid followed by blending with various metal salts which leads to the formation of electron conducting polymer films. In another set of experiments, the sulfonated ionomer was prepared from the epoxidised SBS block copolymer followed by ring opening reaction with an aqueous solution of sodium bisulphate. The products were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The sulfonated ionomers behaves as proton conducting membranes due to the presence of SO3-Na+ groups on polymer backbone. This book will be useful for the researcher working in the field of block copolymer specially on conducting polymer.
Ion conducting polymer electrolytes in thin flexible forms show great technological potentials to fabricate all-solid-state mini/micro electrochemical power sources viz. batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors etc. This book contains the synthesis and characterization of solid polymer electrolytes, is mainly focused on the objectives: to develop some new Mg2+ ion conducting solid polymer and composite polymer electrolytes using a novel solution casting technique; to characterize these materials using various models and experimental techniques; to understand the ion transport properties; subsequently, to employ these solid polymer electrolytes in the fabrication of solid state batteries and study the cell performances under constant load. This book is also provide the basic ideas of ion conduction mechanism in polymer electrolytes and also explained various models for transport phenomenon.
In this work new measurement techniques for the use in chemoresistors and electrochemical transistors are presented. The simultaneous two- and four-point measurement technique is used to discriminate between contact and bulk resistances in such sensors. By integrating two additional electrodes (reference and auxiliary) on the sensor chip, the possibility of electrochemical regeneration of conducting polymer based gas sensors is presented. By combination of an ion-selective electrode with an electrochemical transistor an ion-selective electrochemical transistor was introduced. In the second part new possibilities of creating conducting polymer metallic nanoparticle composites and a characterisation of such composites are presented. In the last chapter the use of graphene as a material for chemoresistor based gas sensors is evaluated. It is shown that modification of graphene by metallic nanoparticels leads to a higher sensitivity and selectivity of such sensors.
Application of Remote Sensing in Vegetation: A Practical Insight. Pioneer application of remote sensing in different regime of science clearly sketched a linear path to absorb desirable of any needful without any hurdle. However, the vulnerability of vegetation due to climate change is assuring to monitor change occurs in their wide ranges of temporal scale over large area through application of remote sensing. In this technological era, existing physical interaction in fenced width with updated satellite sensors is reflecting a good amount of wealth which can lucidly explain the existing vegetation status in that regime within a particular time while extraction of empirical vegetation indices from these sensor data surcharges the desirable results.
Protein is the essential part of human body, in hemodialysis process sometimes it seeps out through dialysis membrane, which enters in waste dialysate material. This book focuses on a protein sensor which can be placed in dialysis machine to monitor the protein leakage in dialysate material. The sensor consists of electrodes system and micropump. The micropump carries the dialysate material towards the electrodes and electrodes sense the presence of protein in dialysate material. The protein sensor is composed of three sensing electrodes, including a working electrode, a counter electrode and a reference electrode. The principle of the proposed sensor is the change in the electric current between the working and the reference electrodes. When protein is absorbed on to the working electrode it reduces the conducting area, as a result resistance increases and current decreases between working electrode and reference electrode. This change of current is used for the measurement of the concentration of protein in the waste dialysate material. The purposed sensor can also be use for urinary protein.
The Research and Development of Solid Conducting Polymer Electrolytes has become has always an identifiable.The Solid Conducting Polymer Electrolytes are of technological interest due to their possible application as solid Electrolytes in different devices such as energy conversion units(Batteries,Fuel Cells),smart windows, photo-electrochemical solar cells. This book contains the development and characterization of Poly Ethylene Oxide(PEO) complexed with different bicarbonate salts and their characterization by several spectroscopic techniques IR, XRD, DSC, SEM and Composition & Temperature Dependance Conductivity and transport number measurements which were employed to characterize these polymer electrolyte systems. First the speed of the developments in Solid Ion Conducting Polymer Electrolytes for Batteries, sensors and low temperature fuel cells makes it necessary to record another "snapshot of this research field". Second, this detailed book/monograph narrows the field into study of Ion Conducting Materials,Characterization, processing and properties relevant to device applications that require bulk, and mainly Ionic Materials for device applications.
Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) are unusual materials as they have to possess a high electrical conductivity with good transparency in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum. TCOs have many applica¬tions such as electrical inter-connections for window electrodes in flat panel displays, electro-optical devices and solar cells. TCOs are also receiving much attention and recognition as they are promising candidate for optoelectronic application in the ultraviolet to visible range. Other important parameters that determine the usefulness of TCOs are environmental stability, process¬ing compatibility with other device elements and production cost etc. Indium (In) doped tin oxide also known as ITO is used as TCO in industries. Now a days, TCOs have already been largely investigated. Therefore, in the recent years, this has stimulated the development of new TCO materials like doped ZnO.
Focused Impedance Measurement (FIM) system uses six electrodes to localize a zone of interest. The present work represents a modified FIM technique using four electrodes placed at the corners of a square matrix. In this technique firstly current is driven through an adjacent electrode pair while the potential is measured across the opposite pair from which an impedance value is obtained. Then a similar measurement is made at 90 degree to the above by changing the electrode pairs appropriately. The sum of these two impedance values has a dominant contribution from the central region within the square matrix, giving the desired focusing. Measurements made on a 2D phantom have verified the desired performance successfully in the present work. Results presented through sensitivity maps and sensitivity curves using insulating, conducting objects and an object of organic conductivity (potato) demonstrate the focusing effect clearly. Because of 3D sensitivity it could give physiological information on large organs like stomach, lungs, etc. using surface electrodes in the frontal and transverse plane.
The studies of the organic conducting polymers started in the last of three decades. Electronic and electrical properties of polyAniline and poly (O-Tolidine) were examined intensively in recent years . The modelling/shaping of electrical, optical, and solar cells properties of conducting polymers that are necessary for a systematic development of future devices, represents the central part of this study. The conducting polymers and the applications of their electrical, optical, and especially electro-optical devices representing a field of application which is highly relevant today, as it utilized new materials properties not offered by their inorganic counterparts.
The main purpose of this book is to present the detail remote sensing application in forestry with a special case study of Ranthambhore National Park, India. A short glance is presented on the fundamental of remote sensing, earth observation satellites and sensors, introduction to image interpretation & instruments, remote sensing application in natural resource management, agricultural, crop inventory, ecology, soil, hydrology, hydro-geomorphology, water resource management, petroleum, and disaster risk management. The comprehensive remote sensing application in forestry with spectral properties of vegetation, baseline data collection, forest cover mapping, land use land cover mapping, change detection techniques, afforestation & deforestation, habitat mapping & modelling, forest fire risk zonation, forest carbon management of Ranthambhore National Park are presented in the book. The concept on Microwave and LiDAR remote sensing for forestry are also described in brief. The book is useful for the instructors, research scholars and students of forestry, remote sensing, geographic information system, geography, and botany for the detail study in the field of forestry remote sensing.
Conducting polymers have many applications in device fabrication. Organic semi-conductors are different from inorganic ones. In conducting polymers the conducting properties are due to the presence of conjugated pi-electron backbone in these polymers. Due to this, these polymers display low energy optical transitions, low ionizing potentials and high electron affinities. Tailoring of their properties is very important for effective applications. This book explains the use of SHI irradiation technique to modify the properties of conducting polymer films.
Hyperspectral Remote sensing Application in Mineral Exploration deals with the identification & mapping different hydrothermally altered/weathered minerals in Himalaya. This book provides information about the available hyperspectral technology and its use for identification and mapping of different hydrothermally altered minerals.This book also exhibits the comparison of different conventional geological methods of mineral identification with the spectroscopy.