Electrical cell impedance sensing (ECIS) provides an interesting potential towards real time label free diagnostic tools. Its current use to measure cell growth and study the cell cultures requires transmission and fluorescent microscopy to confirm the results. Gold electrodes traditionally used in ECIS hinder the microscopy and hence the use of a new material that allows electrical measurements and improved level of microscopy is essential. PEDOT, a conducting polymer, can bridge the gap between ECIS and microscopy, hence paving the way for new sensor systems and satisfying the traditional biologists who desire confirmation of results through microscopy.
The research work presented in this book deals with the synthesis of condensed polymers from the naturally occurring pigment. It will be unique polymer and it may involve in the electronic applications because it is conducting polymer. These polymers were synthesized by chemical method and characterized by some analytical methods. The PLPA and PLPAS shows conducting nature, while PLMA and PLMAS are insulators polymers. These polymers may have the important properties such as gas sensing, temperature sensing, chemical sensing etc
The radiation synthesis of conductive polymer is a unique technique for producing many desirable biocompatible materials in nanoscale level with magnificent applications due to less impurity and abundant product i.e. commercial product. This book contains sufficient information about the types of polymers, different methods of preparing polymers, and application of polymer generally and specifically the preparation of conductive polymers and polymer doped with nanoparticles metals. The targeting scientific fields are Medical engineering, Medical physics, Polymer processing (membranes suiting Methanol Fuel Cell, Gas separation and Biosensors)
The electrochemical phenomena for thermodynamic characterization and analysis of molecules and ions (Electro-analytical Chemistry) were utilized since the beginning of the twentieth century. The quantitative relationship (voltage, current, conductance, capacitance, and concentration) makes it possible to apply electrochemistry to the detailed characterization of chemical species and processes in the solution phase. Its major areas of application are namely electro-analysis, electro-synthesis, electrochemical energy storage and conversion, corrosion science, metal finishing and electrometallurgy. Electrochemistry has found extensive new applications for the study of chemical reaction and adsorption phenomena. Some of the most exciting applications of electrochemistry have occurred in organic chemistry and biochemistry. The control of an oxidation or reduction process through electrochemistry is more precise in comparison to chemical reactions.
The present work aims for making a proper composite which can be used to monitor its own condition. These materials are called self-sensing composites. In order to achieve this target carbon nanotube (CNT) composites, due to their extraordinary electromechanical properties, are most desired. CNT composite self-sensors are going to be replaced by fibre optic sensors, suffer from high cost, low durability, small sensing volume and mechanical property loss. The most important application of self-sensors is in civil engineering, but this work tries to design a system able to self-sensing of damage because of the practical importance of structural health monitoring, which is needed for aircraft hazard. Referring to Literature indicates that there are two important concepts (Tunnelling effect and Bandgap structure), which explain for the conducting behaviour of CNT semi-conductors. As changing the bandgap structure of CNTs by a simple deformation of composite is pproximately impossible, tunnelling effect has the most influence on the electrical response of a composite as a function of deformation.
The development of fuel cells over the last century has been heavily influenced by external factors. Initially, fuel cells were seen as an attractive means for the generation of power because the efficiencies of other technologies were very poor. However, as the efficiency of these other technologies rapidly improved, the interest in fuel cells faded. Then, in 1950’s fuel cells were rapidly developed for application in space. More recently, significant technical progress in fuel cell technology has made fuel cells appear more viable than ever for a variety of applications. Additionally, concerns about renewable energy resources and the environment have increased interests in generating power with even higher efficiencies and lower emissions, and this has also raised the interest in fuel cells. Although some interesting work was done on fuel cells during the first half of the 20th century, Sir Francis Bacon began his historical work on fuel cells in 1933 and developed a hydrogen-oxygen cell that operated at moderate temperatures using alkaline.
Energy storage became a dominant factor in economic development with widespread introduction of electricity. An early solution to the problem of storing energy for electrical purposes was the development of the battery, electrochemical storage device Fuel cells. Unlike battery which gradually loses its ability to make electricity from the chemicals inside it, a fuel cell converts chemicals into electricity from a continuous supply of fuel outside. Fuel cells are cheaper than other electrochemical devices like Butteries. Recent development focuses on Polymer Electrolyte Fuel cells (PEFC) to overcome basic drawbacks of liquid electrolytes such as corrosion, electrolyte leakage, and low operating temperature range. PEFCs use a polymeric membrane as an Electrolyte such as Nafion 117 polymer which is costly. The cost is still limiting its wide application in the electrochemical devices. The scope of this book is to synthesis and characterizes low cost polymer membrane for fuel cells, proton batteries.
The Research and Development of Solid Conducting Polymer Electrolytes has become has always an identifiable.The Solid Conducting Polymer Electrolytes are of technological interest due to their possible application as solid Electrolytes in different devices such as energy conversion units(Batteries,Fuel Cells),smart windows, photo-electrochemical solar cells. This book contains the development and characterization of Poly Ethylene Oxide(PEO) complexed with different bicarbonate salts and their characterization by several spectroscopic techniques IR, XRD, DSC, SEM and Composition & Temperature Dependance Conductivity and transport number measurements which were employed to characterize these polymer electrolyte systems. First the speed of the developments in Solid Ion Conducting Polymer Electrolytes for Batteries, sensors and low temperature fuel cells makes it necessary to record another "snapshot of this research field". Second, this detailed book/monograph narrows the field into study of Ion Conducting Materials,Characterization, processing and properties relevant to device applications that require bulk, and mainly Ionic Materials for device applications.
The preparation of conducting polymer is an emerging and interesting field of polymer science.It has many useful applications in electronics, industries and electrical devices. In this work, the insulating polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene (SBS) triblock copolymer was epoxidised by performic acid followed by blending with various metal salts which leads to the formation of electron conducting polymer films. In another set of experiments, the sulfonated ionomer was prepared from the epoxidised SBS block copolymer followed by ring opening reaction with an aqueous solution of sodium bisulphate. The products were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The sulfonated ionomers behaves as proton conducting membranes due to the presence of SO3-Na+ groups on polymer backbone. This book will be useful for the researcher working in the field of block copolymer specially on conducting polymer.
Supercapacitor has high power density than batteries and high energy density compared to conventional capacitor. Hence supercapacitor has lot of demand in energy related device technologies. Its market cost increasing day by day. There is a need to search an alternative material for its electrode to make its price down. Electrochemical analysis is one of the useful tool to characterize the electrode material through power and energy application point of view. Present book focus both on the cost effective preparation of Transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO) electrodes by spray pyrolysis and its use in supercapacitor.
Inorganic nanoparticles of different nature and size can be combined with the conducting polymers, giving nanocomposites of core shell structure with interesting physical properties and application potentials. Nanocomposites with core-shell structure based on metal oxide cores and conducting polymer shells are rather easy to prepare even in large quantities. In this book, the electrochemical and photoelectrochemical properties of such nanocomposites have been presented. For these investigations films of nanocomposites were prepared by an electrophoretic deposition process. The deposition process was studied in greater detail and kinetic details were determined. For these investigations for the first time the high voltage electrophoretic deposition process was combined with a quartz microbalance. A mechanism was proposed. Then the films were characterized by various electrochemical and photoelectrochemical methods.
Application of Remote Sensing in Vegetation: A Practical Insight. Pioneer application of remote sensing in different regime of science clearly sketched a linear path to absorb desirable of any needful without any hurdle. However, the vulnerability of vegetation due to climate change is assuring to monitor change occurs in their wide ranges of temporal scale over large area through application of remote sensing. In this technological era, existing physical interaction in fenced width with updated satellite sensors is reflecting a good amount of wealth which can lucidly explain the existing vegetation status in that regime within a particular time while extraction of empirical vegetation indices from these sensor data surcharges the desirable results.
The studies of the organic conducting polymers started in the last of three decades. Electronic and electrical properties of polyAniline and poly (O-Tolidine) were examined intensively in recent years . The modelling/shaping of electrical, optical, and solar cells properties of conducting polymers that are necessary for a systematic development of future devices, represents the central part of this study. The conducting polymers and the applications of their electrical, optical, and especially electro-optical devices representing a field of application which is highly relevant today, as it utilized new materials properties not offered by their inorganic counterparts.
Chitosan(CTS) is commercially interesting polymer due to the presence of an amine group. Chitosan and its oligomers are now well known for their numerous biological properties which have led to very diverse applications. Chitosan can also be transformed into various physical forms, namely membrane, beads, fiber, solution, gel, powder and flake. Though, the processes of making chitosan films and chitosan fibers have been well studied and reported, not all of the laboratories can successfully achieve and use these techniques. On the other hands, CTS solution is easier to prepare comparing to fibers and films. It also costs less money, time, and labor needed when producing those materials of fibers, films, coated discs, etc… for the experiments. Thus, using CTS solution is a potential alternative way in cell culture, especially in researches relate to fibroblasts. Based on the matter of facts, this book focuses on the effects of CTS solution when using it in cell culture as an additive and a supplementing ingredient in culturing medium of the 3T3 fibroblast cell line and cell culture.
Remote sensing is important tool for mapping the different ecosystem of coastal area as it give synoptic views of an area retrieved through repetitive and multi-spectral remote sensing data, which can be useful for monitoring coastal areas. Coastal features are under threat from anthropogenic activities and climate change impact, so it necessary to monitor these ecosystem. The different mangrove and shoreline mapping technique using remote sensing has been discus for the better mapping of the coastal ecosystem.