This book covers the recent advances in electrode materials and their novel applications at the cross-section of advanced materials. The book is divided into two sections: State-of-the-art electrode materials; and engineering of applied electrode materials. The chapters deal with electrocatalysis for energy conversion in view of bionanotechnology; surfactant-free materials and polyoxometalates through the concepts of biosensors to renewable energy applications; mesoporous carbon, diamond, conducting polymers and tungsten oxide/conducting polymer-based electrodes and hybrid systems. Numerous approaches are reviewed for lithium batteries, fuel cells, the design and construction of anode for microbial fuel cells including phosphate polyanion electrodes, electrocatalytic materials, fuel cell reactions, conducting polymer based hybrid nanocomposites and advanced nanomaterials.
A hybrid material is defined as a material composed of an intimate mixture of inorganic components, organic components, or both types of components. In the last few years, a tremendous amount of attention has been given towards the development of materials for efficient energy harvesting; nanostructured hybrid materials have also been gaining significant advances to provide pollutant free drinking water, sensing of environmental pollutants, energy storage and conservation. Separately, intensive work on high performing polymer nanocomposites for applications in the automotive, aerospace and construction industries has been carried out, but the aggregation of many fillers, such as clay, LDH, CNT, graphene, represented a major barrier in their development. Only very recently has this problem been overcome by fabrication and applications of 3D hybrid nanomaterials as nanofillers in a variety of polymers. This book, Hybrid Nanomaterials, examines all the recent developments in the research and specially covers the following subjects: Hybrid nanostructured materials for development of advanced lithium batteries High performing hybrid nanomaterials for supercapacitor applications Nanohybrid materials in the development of solar energy applications Application of hybrid nanomaterials in water purification Advanced nanostructured materials in electromagnetic shielding of radiations Preparation, properties and application of hybrid nanomaterials in sensing of environmental pollutants Development of hybrid fillers/polymer nanocomposites for electronic applications High performance hybrid filler reinforced epoxy nanocomposites State-of-the-art overview of elastomer/hybrid filler nanocomposites
The book outlines first the importance of Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM), which is a natural surface for most of cells. In the following chapters the influence of biological, chemical, mechanical, and physical properties of surfaces in micro and nano-scale on stem cell behavior are discussed including the mechanotransduction. Biomimetic and bioinspired approaches are highlighted for developing microenvironment of several tissues, and surface engineering applications are discussed in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and different type of biomaterials in various chapters of the book. This book brings together innovative methodologies and strategies adopted in the research and development of Advanced Surfaces in Stem Cell Research. Well-known worldwide researchers deliberate subjects including: Extracellular matrix proteins for stem cell fate The superficial mechanical and physical properties of matrix microenvironment as stem cell fate regulator Effects of mechanotransduction on stem cell behavior Modulation of stem cells behavior through bioactive surfaces Influence of controlled micro and nanoengineered surfaces on stem cell fate Nanostructured polymeric surfaces for stem cells Laser surface modification techniques and stem cells applications Plasma polymer deposition: a versatile tool for stem cell research Application of bioreactor concept and modeling techniques in bone regeneration and augmentation treatments Substrates and surfaces for control of pluripotent stem cell fate and function Application of biopolymer-based, surface modified devices in transplant medicine and tissue engineering Silk as a natural biopolymer for tissue engineering
The manipulation of fluids in channels with dimensions in the range from tens to hundreds of micrometers – microfluidics – has recently emerged as a new field of science and technology. Microfluidics has applications spanning analytical chemistry, organic and inorganic synthesis, cell biology, optics and information technology. One particularly promising application is the microfluidic synthesis of polymer particles with precisely controlled dimensions, and a variety of shapes, morphologies and compositions. Written as a comprehensive introduction for scientists and engineers working in microfabrication and microfluidics, Microfluidic Reactors for Polymer Particles covers topics such as: Applications and methods of generation of polymer particles Physics of microfluidic emulsification Formation of droplets in microfluidic systems High-throughput microfluidic systems for formation of droplets Microfluidic production of polymer particles and hydrogel particles Polymer capsules Synthesis of polymer particles with non-conventional shapes This book is intended for a broad audience, including students, researchers and engineers in industry, with interests in physics, chemistry, materials science, engineering or biotechnology.
Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters brings together state of the art knowledge and cutting edge techniques in various stages of research related to the ever more popular impedance source converters/inverters. Significant research efforts are underway to develop commercially viable and technically feasible, efficient and reliable power converters for renewable energy, electric transportation and for various industrial applications. This book provides a detailed understanding of the concepts, designs, controls, and application demonstrations of the impedance source converters/inverters. Key features: Comprehensive analysis of the impedance source converter/inverter topologies, including typical topologies and derived topologies. Fully explains the design and control techniques of impedance source converters/inverters, including hardware design and control parameter design for corresponding control methods. Presents the latest power conversion solutions that aim to advance the role of power electronics into industries and sustainable energy conversion systems. Compares impedance source converter/inverter applications in renewable energy power generation and electric vehicles as well as different industrial applications. Provides an overview of existing challenges, solutions and future trends. Supported by calculation examples, simulation models and results. Highly accessible, this is an invaluable resource for researchers, postgraduate/graduate students studying power electronics and its application in industry and renewable energy conversion as well as practising R&D engineers. Readers will be able to apply the presented material for the future design of the next generation of efficient power electronic converters/inverters.
Rheology and Processing of Polymer Nanocomposites examines the current state of the art and new challenges in the characterization of nanofiller/polymer interactions, nanofiller dispersion, distribution, filler-filler interactions and interfaces in polymer nanocomposites. A one-stop reference resource for important research accomplishments in this area, it benefits academics, researchers, scientists, and engineers in the field of polymer nanocomposites in their daily work.
Including chemical, synthetic, and cross-disciplinary approaches; this book includes the necessary techniques and technologies to help readers better understand polymers for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The methods in the book are essential to researchers and scientists in the field and will lead to further development in polymer and fuel cell technologies. • Provides complete, essential, and comprehensive overview of polymer applications for PEM fuel cells • Emphasizes state-of-the-art developments and methods, like PEMs for novel fuel cells and polymers for fuel cell catalysts • Includes detailed chapters on major topics, like PEM for direct liquid fuel cells and fluoropolymers and non-fluorinated polymers for PEM • Has relevance to a range of industries – like polymer engineering, materials, and green technology – involved with fuel cell technologies and R&D
The accessible compendium of polymers in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)—extremely thin tubes only a few nanometers in diameter but able to attain lengths thousands of times greater—are prime candidates for use in the development of polymer composite materials. Bringing together thousands of disparate research works, Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites: Manufacture, Properties, and Applications covers CNT-polymers from synthesis to potential applications, presenting the basic science and engineering of this dynamic and complex area in an accessible, readable way. Designed to be of use to polymer scientists, engineers, chemists, physicists, and materials scientists, the book covers carbon nanotube fundamentals to help polymer experts understand CNTs, and polymer physics to help those in the CNT field, making it an invaluable resource for anyone working with CNT-polymer composites. Detailed chapters describe the mechanical, rheological, electrical, and thermal properties of carbon nanotube-polymer composites. Including a glossary that defines key terms, Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites is essential reading for anyone looking to gain a fundamental understanding of CNTs and polymers, as well as potential and current applications, including electronics (shielding and transparent electrodes), flame retardants, and electromechanics (sensors and actuators), and their challenges.
This book reviews chiral polymer synthesis and its application to asymmetric catalysis. It features the design and use of polymer-immobilized catalysts and methods for their design and synthesis. Chapters cover peptide-catalyzed and enantioselective synthesis, optically-active polymers, and continuous flow processes. It collects recent advances in an important field of polymer and organic chemistry, with leading researchers explaining applications in academic and industry R & D.
Remote Sensing plays a key role in monitoring the various manifestations of global climate change. It is used routinely in the assessment and mapping of biodiversity over large areas, in the monitoring of changes to the physical environment, in assessing threats to various components of natural systems, and in the identification of priority areas for conservation. This book presents the fundamentals of remote sensing technology, but rather than containing lengthy explanations of sensor specifications and operation, it concentrates instead on the application of the technology to key environmental systems. Each system forms the basis of a separate chapter, and each is illustrated by real world case studies and examples. Readership The book is intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in earth science, environmental science, or physical geography taking a course in environmental remote sensing. It will also be an invaluable reference for environmental scientists and managers who require an overview of the use of remote sensing in monitoring and mapping environmental change at regional and global scales. Additional resources for this book can be found at: http://www.wiley.com/go/purkis/remote.
Summarizes research encompassing all of the aspects required to understand, fabricate and integrate enzymatic fuel cells Contributions span the fields of bio-electrochemistry and biological fuel cell research Teaches the reader to optimize fuel cell performance to achieve long-term operation and realize commercial applicability Introduces the reader to the scientific aspects of bioelectrochemistry including electrical wiring of enzymes and charge transfer in enzyme fuel cell electrodes Covers unique engineering problems of enzyme fuel cells such as design and optimization
This book presents a balance of theoretical considerations and practical problem solving of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This book incorporates the results of the last two decades of research on the theories and applications of impedance spectroscopy, including more detailed reviews of the impedance methods applications in industrial colloids, biomedical sensors and devices, and supercapacitive polymeric films. The book covers all of the topics needed to help readers quickly grasp how to apply their knowledge of impedance spectroscopy methods to their own research problems. It also helps the reader identify whether impedance spectroscopy may be an appropriate method for their particular research problem. This includes understanding how to correctly make impedance measurements, interpret the results, compare results with expected previously published results form similar chemical systems, and use correct mathematical formulas to verify the accuracy of the data. Unique features of the book include theoretical considerations for dealing with modeling, equivalent circuits, and equations in the complex domain, review of impedance instrumentation, best measurement methods for particular systems and alerts to potential sources of errors, equations and circuit diagrams for the most widely used impedance models and applications, figures depicting impedance spectra of typical materials and devices, extensive references to the scientific literature for more information on particular topics and current research, and a review of related techniques and impedance spectroscopy modifications.
The result of the authors' 40 years of experience in durability testing, this book describes the advanced testing methodology based on the viscoelasticity of matrix polymer. After a short introduction to the viscoelastic behavior of fiber-reinforced plastics, the text goes on to review in detail the concepts of static, fatigue and creep strengths in polymer composites. An application-oriented approach is adopted such that the concepts developed in the book are applied to real-life examples. Indispensable information for materials scientists and engineers working in those industrial sectors is concerned with the development and safe use of polymer composite-based products.
In Vivo Glucose Sensing is a key reference for scientists and engineers working on the development of glucose sensing technologies for the management of diabetes and other medical conditions. It discusses the analytical chemistry behind the strategies currently used for measuring glucose in vivo. It focuses on analyzing samples in the real world and discusses the biological complexities that make glucose sensing difficult. Covering current implantable devices, next-generation implantable sensing methods, and non-invasive methods for measuring glucose, this book concludes with an overview of possible applications other than diabetes.
The book series «Polymer Nano-, Micro- and Macrocomposites» provides complete and comprehensive information on all important aspects of polymer composite research and development, including, but not limited to synthesis, filler modification, modeling, characterization as well as application and commercialization issues. Each book focuses on a particular topic and gives a balanced in-depth overview of the respective subfi eld of polymer composite science and its relation to industrial applications. With the books the readers obtain dedicated resources with information relevant to their research, thereby helping to save time and money. In-situ intercalative polymerization in the presence of filler provides distinct advantages when compared to other nanocomposite synthesis techniques including the possibility to polymerize a large range of thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers, improved handling of gaseous or liquid monomers or high pressure polymerization and improved control of heat of polymerization. This volume aims to highlight these advantages of the generation of polymer nanocomposites with a large spectrum of polymer matrices. Following an overview of the synthesis methodologies, the text goes on to discuss the most relevant polymer materials, including polyamides, polyolefi nes, polyacrylates, polyethylenes, polyurethanes, polyesters and polyepoxides.