Heroine is synthetic derivative of morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from unripe seeds or capsules of Papaver somniferum (poppy plant). The use of heroine and morphine as a recreational drug has reached epidemic proportion, largely because of increased availability. The currently used techniques for the detection of opiate drugs are time consuming, expensive and not amenable to on-site application. This book describes about development of a highly sensitive, fast, reliable, field applicable and cost effective immunoassay/ immunobiosensor for the detection of opiate drugs: morphine and heroin, the most addictive and commonly abused narcotics. Various types of immunoassay are described in this book using enzyme, fluorophore, carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles and phage display detection which shows detection limit in the ppb range without the aid of any sophisticated instrument.
In this technique, the production of molecular framework and polymer is done using meta acrylic acid monomers, which are formed via covalence connection between meta acrylic acid monomers (MAA) of white polymer. Here also hydrogenic connection between exotoxin amino acid and meta acrylic acid is made that would function as the selective absorption for that. Then in the second stage, based on the bacterial antibody connection to nanoparticel, a sensor was used. In this part of the research, as the basis for absorption for the recognition of bacterial toxin, medium sized silica nanoparticles of 10 nano meter in form of solid powder were utilized with Notrino brand. Then the suspension produced from agent-linked nanosilica which was connected to bacterial antibody was positioned near the samples of distilled water, that were contaminated with Staphylococcus Aureus bacterial toxin with the density of 10-3, so that in case any toxin exists in the sample, a connection between toxin antigen and antibody would be formed. Finally, the light absorption related to the connection of antigen to the particle attached antibody was measured using spectrophotometry.
Nanotechnology is the most promising are of revolutionary science. The use of fluorescent nanoparticle open the possibility of in-vitro and in-vivo imaging for various disease diagnosis. Breast cancer is a severe problem in the whole world and we have no permanent solution for the detection and treatment of breast cancer. Many drugs are available in market but among them; most of the drugs are suitable for treatment in initial stag. Monoclonal antibody therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) is most effective in HER-2 positive breast cancer patient and is now widely used for treatment. Therefore, the early detection of HER-2 status in breast cancer patient is very important for the effective implementation of monoclonal antibody therapy. Combination of bioimaging using fluorescent nanoparticle as diagnostic tool and monoclonal antibody therapy is the most promising way for early detection and cure of cancer and other disease. Nanoparticle is also useful as antibacterial agent in several application. This book will provide you research based application of fluorescent and other nanoparticle and its biocompatibility for animal cell.
Biosensor employing organelles in immobilized form are widely used in environmental monitoring. These immobilized organelles play vital role in sensitivity, accuracy, and stability of the biosensor system. Some of the organelle used for immobilization is whole cell, protein, enzyme and DNA. Traditionally biosensor used whole cell from one individual strain of microorganism. This concept limits the biosensor detection to certain specific samples alone. Detection of the content of the samples depends on the properties of the immobilized microbial cell. For detection of broad range of samples, novel biosenor using mixed microbial cultures is being designed in this dissertation.
Nowadays,detection of a single-base polymorphism is thought to be the key for diagnosis of about 400 genetic diseases and,realization of personalized medicine in order to develop therapeutics.The other hand,the integration of new emerging nanomaterials(graphene)with sensors and devices have revealed an enormous potential for the future application of highly sensitive and selective DNA biosensors.All these approaches open up the routes for genetic researchers to understand the progression and early screening of diseases,or forensic analysis by tailoring the electrical properties of graphene,which make the controlled design of these sensors essential.In this research study, numerical model of the graphene-based liquid-gated sensors with DNA sensing application is developed to help in understanding the sensing mechanism of these sensors which is the matter of dispute these days.The results are compared with the experimental work and an acceptable agreement is observed. We found that numerical modeling needs optimization to be closer to the realistic results.So, particle swarm optimization technique is used to achieve a more accurate and reliable model for DNA hybridization detection.
The growing demand for point-of-care analytical systems requires novel miniaturised and sophisticated sensor systems. This book describes the development of an all-polymer biosensor platform for electrochemical detection of analytes from liquid media. Conductive polymers were employed for the electrical structures, while aptamers were used as recognition elements. The wide range of applicability of this sensor is shown on the basis of three different analytical challenges.
In a climate of significant problem drug use opiates continue to be the main problem drugs. Illegal drug use is a hidden phenomenon, making it difficult to obtain accurate estimates of untreated use. Yet viable methods to produce current and regular prevalence and incidence estimates are required by policy makers and service providers responsible for allocating increasingly scarce resources. Using Irish data on cases of clients presenting for first treatment, incubation period distributions describing progression to first treatment were fitted. This was then applied with new analytical solutions of the back calculation equation and a linear Volterra integral equation to estimate for the first time the untreated population of opiate users. Based on these models for estimating the hidden incidence an integral equation model was derived and solved to estimate the prevalence of opiate use. A partial differential equation a model was then derived to describe the geographic spread of opiate use in Ireland. The methods and solutions produced address the very real problem facing service providers and planners in tackling and providing adequate services for problem opiate use.
Biomedical electronics and instruments, equipment, diagnostic & detection tools success based on the success of high sensitive biosensors invention and development. Biosensors are the active electronic, semiconductor electronics, optoelectronics or other technologies related devices which sense biological signal from membrane in the form of antibodies, antigens, bacteria''s, viruses, glucose, oxygen, pH etc called signal/stimuli/receptor at the contact of membrane and biosensor with transducer along with biological sensing element called “ion-electron-interfacing” from where signal convert into detectable electrical signals through transduction principles and measured at computerized electronic signal processing system. This monograph strongly related only about optoelectronic biosensor, in which discussed investigated evanescent wave optical fiber biosensor is one of the strong light carry biological information sensation and high speed detection sensor. Book deal with review, research and fundamental modeling.
This book describes theoretical and modeling study of optical waveguide design, in straight and branched waveguide for ion-exchanged and silicon based materials. Physical parameters involved in the fabrication have been modeled to produce the highest possible evanescent field based on the material that they are using. Apart from that, optical properties such as polarization, beam spot size and wavelength are also studied to monitor their effects on the evanescent field. The compilation of research papers in this book can be used to fabricate an integrated waveguide with optimized condition. These simulation results demonstrate, that evanescent wave based, integrated optical devices for trapping are feasible and can be optimized; paving the way for real-life application devices to be realized.
Advancements in the micro/nano-fabrication techniques have opened up new avenues for the development of portable and easier-to-use biosensors. Over the last few years, carbon electrodes have been widely used as sensing units in biosensors due to their attractive physiochemical properties. This book details different strategies to develop functionalized high surface carbon micro/nano-electrodes for electrochemical and biosensing devices. Carbon electrodes were fabricated via carbon-MEMS technique, which is based on pyrolyzing prepatterned photoresist. To increase the surface area of the carbon electrodes, multiple approaches such as (i) fabrication of porous 3D carbon microarrays, (ii) conformal coating of graphene onto 3D carbon microarrays, and (iii) fabrication of controllable carbon nanostructures were investigated. For carbon surface functionalization to covalently attach biomolecules, different oxidation techniques and the resultant surface carbon–oxygen groups were analyzed and compared. Lastly, label-free detection of platelet-derived growth factor oncoprotein, a cancer biomarker, was demonstrated on 3D carbon microarrays platform with sub-nanomolar detection limit.
Biosensors are analytical devices for selective detection of an analyte or a group of analytes that combine biological material with a physicochemical detector, yielding a measurable signal. Biosensors are used in various fields of human activity, including environmental and clinical analyses, food analyses and control of industrial processes. Most efforts in biosensor studies have been focused on the fabrication of various combinations of biological components and measuring systems; less attention has been paid to the interpretation of factors, affecting the formation of biosensor output signal and the problems of biosensor calibration. So in many cases only a fraction of potentially available information is taken into consideration, making the biosensor analyses less reliable than they actually could be. The present work is an effort to solve some of the problems in biosensor signal analysis, proposing a new approach to signal modelling and calibration of biosensors, based on oxidoreductases; just to promote the application of these biosensors for on-line analyses.
Since its inception in 1941, HI test has been subjected to variety of procedural modifications, however due to use of stable viruses in HI test much information has not been generated regarding the effect of antigenic variation on the sensitivity of HI test. With current situation of increased serosurveillance activities against HPAI all over the world, there is acute shortage of reliable antigen and antisera for conducting HI test against different avian influenza viruses. It has, therefore, become significant to identify a reliable source of antigens on regular basis. While undertaking such efforts at local level, attempts are to be made to identify a particular strain of AIV to be used for antigen preparation throughout the country. The study reported here has been designed to compare various HI antigens for identifying a stable type of antigen and also for standardizing a reproducible HI protocol for carrying out harmonization in avian influenza diagnosis and serosurveillance.
The dynamic synthesis of nonlinear feature functions is a challenging problem in object detection. This book presents a combinatorial approach of genetic programming and the expectation maximization algorithm (GP-EM) to synthesize nonlinear feature functions automatically for the purpose of object detection. The EM algorithm investigates the use of Gaussian mixture which is able to model the behaviour of the training samples during an optimal GP search strategy. Based on the Gaussian probability assumption, the GP-EM method is capable of performing simultaneously dynamic feature synthesis and model-based generalization. The EM part of the approach leads to the application of the maximum likelihood (ML) operation which provides protection against inter-cluster data separation and thus exhibits improved convergence. The experimental results show that the approach improves the detection accuracy and efficiency of pattern object discovery, as compared to some state-of-the-art methods for object detection existing in the literature.
Different kinds of viruses are the major causes of acute hepatitis worldwide. These viral infections are a main serious public health problem. The development of widely applicable techniques that are able to detect and quantify hepatitis viruses or the improvement of present methodology remains urgently needed. Detection of hepatitis viral infections has traditionally relied on the circulating antibody test using enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay. However, a lot of novel tools are available recently and these technologies have been increasingly used to a variety of viral nucleic acid detections. They are proved to be superior to traditional methods in the considerable advantages of stability, rapidity, reproducibility as well as higher sensitivity and specificity. The present book is consisted by three original research articles. All of these manuscripts are based on experiments performed currently, mainly related to many novel strategies of hepatitis viruses nucleic acid amplification and quantification. The dedication of this work reflects the author’s anticipation that it would be helpful to some researchers and technicians in biomedical and viral diagnostic field.
This thesis is devoted towards the development of polymeric matrices and bioconjugated quantum dots for immuno-based detection of S.typhi in water. Thesis involves the surface modification of nylon membrane by grafting with GMA using free radical graft copolymerization. S.typhi specific IgG immobilized NyM-g-GMA was used as solid phase in development of ELISA for detection of S.typhi. Developed sandwich ELISA was found to be specific, reproducible, reasonably rapid and sensitive with detection limit of 103cells/mL. Developed sandwich ELISA was found to have two-fold higher limit of detection as compared to the assay performed using PS plates. For further validation of the developed immunoassay, water samples were collected from different sources in and around Delhi and tested for various parameters of validation. A method for fluorescence based detection of sandwich immunocomplex of bacteria and antibody conjugated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots on surface modified porous polycarbonate membrane was also developed. Fluorescent aggregates were observed on the anti-Sty IgG immobilized membranes under confocal microscope and semi-quantified using spectral profiling.